馮斯·瓊潘納斯

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冯斯·琼潘纳斯(Fons Trompenaars)
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馮斯·瓊潘納斯(Fons Trompenaars)
馮斯·瓊潘納斯(Fons Trompenaars)——又譯為馮·特姆彭納斯

目錄

馮斯·瓊潘納斯簡介

  馮斯·瓊潘納斯(Fons Trompenaars)生於1952年。畢業於賓夕法尼亞大學沃頓商學院,是跨文化管理的開創者和倡導者之一,曾先後在18個國家開設了1000多次跨文化管理培訓課程,現任特姆彭納斯公司總經理。該公司致力於國際管理咨詢與培訓服務,服務客戶囊括了摩托羅拉殼牌龐巴迪喜力等世界一流企業,為企業經營管理做出了卓著的貢獻。

  1994年,他和C.H.特納(Charles Hampden Turner)合作出版了《資本主義的七種文化》,他的聲譽源於他在現代管理文化方面的研究。是位於荷蘭阿姆斯特丹的國際商業研究中心的負責人。

主要貢獻

  討論管理者經濟全球化過程中可能會遇到的各種文化因素是如何影響人們的行動的,列舉幾種文化的衝突,著有《跨越文化浪潮》等。

  一、特朗皮納斯的組織文化模型

  馮斯·瓊潘納斯(Fons Trompenaars)即“弗恩斯·特朗皮納斯”根據他的組織文化緯度將組織文化分為四種類型:家族型組織文化保育器型組織文化導彈型組織文化埃菲爾鐵塔型組織文化

影響世界進程的100位管理大師
1.亞當·斯密
(Adam Smith,1723-1790)
2.羅伯特·歐文
(Robert Owen,1771-1858)
3.查爾斯·巴貝奇
(Charles Babbage,1792-1871)
4.弗雷德里克·W·泰勒
(Frederick W. Taylor,1856-1915)
5.卡爾·巴思
(Carl G. Barth,1860-1939)
6.亨利·甘特
(Henry L. Gantt,1861-1919)
7.弗蘭克·吉爾佈雷斯
(Frank B. Gilbreth,1868-1924)
8.莉蓮·吉爾佈雷斯
(Lillian Moller Gilbreth,1878-1972)
9.哈林頓·埃默森
(Harrington Emerson,1853-1931)
10.莫裡斯·庫克
(Morris Cooke,1872-1960)
11.亨利·法約爾
(Henry Fayol,1841-1925)
12.馬克斯·韋伯
(Max Weber,1864-1920)
13.林德爾·厄威克
(Lyndall F. Urwick,1891-1984)
14.盧瑟·古利克
(Luther H. Gulick,1892-1993)
15.瑪麗·帕克·福萊特
(Mary Parker Follett,1868-l933)
16.雨果·孟斯特伯格
(Hugo Munsterberg,1863-l9l6)
17.喬治·埃爾頓·梅奧
(George Elton Mayo,1880-1949)
18.弗里茨·羅特利斯伯格
(Fritz J. Roethlisberger,1898-1974)
19.赫伯特·西蒙
(Herbert A. Simon)
20.亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛
(Abraham Maslow,1908-l970)
21.克萊頓·阿爾德佛
(Clayton Alderfer)
22.戴維·麥克利蘭
(David McClelland)
23.道格拉斯·麥克雷戈
(Douglas McGregor,1906-1964年)
24.約翰·莫爾斯
(John Morse)
25.威廉·奧奇
(William G. Ouchi)
26.克瑞斯·阿吉裡斯
(Chris Argyris)
27.庫爾特·勒溫
(Kurt Lewin,1890 - 1947)
28.利蘭·佈雷德福
(Leland Bradfurd)
29.伯爾赫斯·弗雷德里克·斯金納
(B. F. Skinner)
30.阿爾伯特·班杜拉
(Albert Bandura)
31.萊曼·波特
(Lyman Porter)
32.維克托·弗魯姆
(Victor H. Vroom)
33.弗雷德里克·赫茨伯格
(Frederick Herzberg)
34.斯塔西·亞當斯
(J. Stacy. Adams)
35.哈羅德·凱利
(Harold H. Kelley)
36.哈羅德·孔茨
(Harold koontz,1908-1984)
37.切斯特·巴納德
(Chester Barnard,1886-1961)
38.斯坦利·西肖爾
(Stanley E. Seashore)
39.羅伯特·坦南鮑姆
(Robert Tannenbaum)
40.俄亥俄州立大學研究小組
41.倫西斯·利克特
(Rensis Likert)(密執安研究)
42.羅伯特·布萊克
(Robert R. Blake)
43.弗雷德·菲德勒
(Fred E. Fiedler)
44.羅伯特·豪斯
(Robert J House)
45.保羅·赫塞
(Paul Hersey)
46.理查德·約翰遜
(Richard A. Johnson)
47.弗里蒙特·卡斯特
(Fremont E. Kast)
48.詹姆斯·羅森茨韋克
(James E. Rosenzweig)
49.詹姆斯·米勒
(James Grier Miller)
50.梅薩·羅維奇
(M. Mesarovie)
51.彼得·德魯克
(Peter Drucker)
52.歐內斯特·戴爾
(Ernest Dale)
53.威廉·紐曼
(William Newman)
54.艾爾弗雷德·P·斯隆
(Alfred P.Sloan)
55.保羅·勞倫斯
(Paul R. Lawrence)
56.弗雷德·盧桑斯
(Fred Luthars)
57.瓊·伍德沃德
(英國,Joan Woodward)
58.亨利·明茨伯格
(Henry Mintzberg)
59.埃爾伍德·斯潘塞·伯法
(Elwood Spencer Buffa)
60.W·愛德華茲·戴明
(W. Edwards Deming)
61.約瑟夫·朱蘭
(Joseph Juran)
62.戴爾·卡耐基
(Dale Carnegie)
63.詹姆士·錢皮
(James Champy)
64.馬文·鮑爾
(Marvin Bower)
65.大前研一
(Kenichi Ohmae)
66.湯姆·彼得斯
(Tom Peters)
67.布魯斯·亨德森
(Bruce Henderson)
68.亨利·福特
(Henry Ford)
69.小托馬斯·沃森
(Thomas Watson Jr.)
70.戴維·帕卡德
(David Packard)
71.盛田昭夫
(Akito Morita)
72.松下幸之助
(Konosuke Matsushita)
73.羅伯特·湯賽德
(Robert Townsend)
74.哈羅德·傑寧
(Harold Geneen)
75.伊戈爾·安索夫
(Igor Ansoff)
76.邁克爾·波特
(Michael Porter)
77.加里·哈默爾
(Gary Hamel)
78.理查德·帕斯卡爾
(RiChard Pascale)
79.羅莎貝斯·莫斯·坎特
(Rosabeth Moss kanter)
80.查爾斯·漢迪
(Charles Handy)
81.艾爾弗雷德·D·錢德勒
(Alfred Chandler)
82.蘇曼特拉·戈沙爾
(Sumantra Ghoshal)
83.彼得·聖吉
(Peter Senge)
84.吉爾特·霍夫斯塔德
(Geert Hofstede)
85.馮斯·瓊潘納斯
(Fons Trompenaars)
86.艾德佳·沙因
(Edgar Schein)
87.埃里奧特·傑奎斯
(Elliott Jaques)
88.阿爾文·托夫勒
(Alvin Toffler)
89.約翰·奈斯比特
(John Naisitt)
90.瑪麗·帕克·福列特
(Mary Parker Follett)
91.沃倫·本尼斯
(Warren Bennis)
92.勞倫斯·彼得
(Laurence Peter)
93.西奧多·萊維特
(Theodore Levitt)
94.菲利普·科特勒
(Philip Kotler)
95.傑伊·洛希
(Jay W. Lorsch)
96.愛德華·勞勒
(Edward Lawler)
97.沃倫·施密特
(Warren H. Schmidt)
98.簡·莫頓
(Jane S. Mouton)
99.特倫斯·米切爾
(Terence R. Mitchell)
100.肯尼斯·布蘭查德
(Kenneth Blanchard)
[編輯]

  1、家族型組織文化:家族型組織文化可能是最古老的一種文化,這是一種與人相關的文化,而不是以任務為導向的。在這種文化中,組織的領導者就像是組織的“父親”,有較高的權威和權利。組織更傾向於直覺的學習而不是理性的學習,更重視組織成員的發展而不是更好的利用員工。當組織出現危機,通常都不會被公佈出來,所以儘管在組織內部溫暖、親密和友好,但是這種內部一體化是以較差的外部適應性為代價的,他們能夠在相互擁抱和親吻之中破產倒閉。屬於這類型組織文化的國家有:日本、巴西、土耳其、巴基斯坦、西班牙、義大利、菲律賓。

  2、保育器型組織文化:保育器型組織文化是一種既以人為導向,又強調平等的文化,典型的代表就是在矽谷。這種文化富於創造性,孕育著新的觀點。由於強調平等,所以這種文化的組織結構是最精簡的,等級也是最少的。在這樣的文化中,組織成員共同承擔責任並尋求解決辦法。

  3、導彈型組織文化:導彈型組織文化是一種平等的、以任務為導向的文化。在這種文化中,任務通常都是由小組或者項目團隊完成的,但是這種小組都是臨時性的,任務完成,小組就會解散。成員們所做的工作都不是預先設定好的,當有需要完成的任務時,便必須去做。屬於這類型組織文化的國家有:美國、英國、挪威、愛爾蘭。  

  4、埃菲爾鐵塔型組織文化:稱之為埃菲爾鐵塔文化就是因為具有這種類型文化的組織結構看起來很像埃菲爾鐵塔,等級較多,且底層員工較多,越到高層人數越少。每一層對於其下的一層都有清晰的責任,所以組織員工都是小心謹慎的。對組織的任何不滿都要通過一定的章程和實情調查才有可能反映到高層管理者。在這種文化的組織中,組織成員都相信需要必需的技能才能保住現在職位,也需要更進一步的技能才能升遷。屬於這類型組織文化的國家有:德國、法國、蘇格蘭、澳大利亞、加拿大。

  二、ERP項目的核心是“人”

  ERP是一把手工程。一把手要重視項目,拿ERP當作企業最關鍵的問題之一來做。但一把手並不需要親力親為,只需在ERP項目中解決最核心的問題——選擇合適的執行人、充分授權、合理配置資源。堯也好、舜也好、上帝也好,莫不如此。

  在整個實施周期內,ERP是項目經理的項目。制定可行的計劃、鼓舞士氣並率眾執行、解決執行中的關鍵難題是項目經理的三大任務。ERP系統是企業每個操作者的系統。無論是項目團隊還是最終用戶,都要理性面對。馮斯·瓊潘納斯把人分為“普遍主義者(如美國、加拿大、澳大利亞人)”和“具體主義者(如中國、南韓、馬來西亞人)”。前者提倡“唯一最佳方式”,即在任何情況下都適用的一系列準則,因此非常容易接受這種被看作是企業最佳實踐的ERP系統;後者則註重每個特殊情況下的特殊性,在看到ERP系統時,滿眼都是“和我們這裡不一樣”。在中國實施ERP系統,最基層的員工、最基本的數據,解決不好都有可能成為壓倒駱駝的最後一根稻草。馮斯·瓊潘納斯說:“國際化的經理人需要的不只是對文化差異的理解。他或她應該尊重差異,調和文化交叉難題,並對因此形成的多樣性善加利用。國際化經理人應該調和文化難題。”ERP項目的核心是“人”。

  三、規章制度企業文化建設具有舉足輕重的作用

  馮斯·瓊潘納斯曾對企業制度有過一段精辟的論述:“如果想理解其他文化,首先必須懂得文化是一系列規則和方式。在一個特定社會的發展過程中,它的文化也逐漸演化,併成為解決各種反覆出現的問題的標準。”

  企業的規章制度企業經營宗旨經營理念企業精神企業價值觀的體現,因此說制度是企業文化的重要組成部分。通過制度可以看出一個企業倡導什麼、限制什麼;喜歡什麼樣的人、討厭什麼樣的人;褒獎哪種人、懲罰哪種人等等。凡此種種,必然對企業員工的行為起到至關重要的導向作用,也體現了各個企業的特色。

Fons Trompenaars

  Fons Trompenaars is a Dutch author in the field of cross-cultural communication. His books include: Riding the Waves of Culture, Seven Cultures of Capitalism, Building Cross-Cultural Competence and 21 Leaders for the 21st Century.

  Trompenaars studied Economics at the Free University of Amsterdam and later earned a Ph.D. from Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, with a dissertation on differences in conceptions of organizational structure in various cultures. He experienced cultural differences firsthand at home, where he grew up speaking both French and Dutch, and then later at work with Shell in nine countries.

  Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner have developed a model of culture with seven dimensions. There are five orientations covering the ways in which human beings deal with each other.:

  • 1. Universalism vs. particularism (What is more important, rules or relationships?)
  • 2. Individualism vs. collectivism (communitarianism) (Do we function in a group or as individuals?)
  • 3. Neutral vs. emotional (Do we display our emotions?)
  • 4. Specific vs. diffuse (Is responsibility specifically assigned or diffusely accepted?)
  • 5. Achievement vs. ascription (Do we have to prove ourselves to receive status or is it given to us?)
    • In addition there is a different way in which societies look at time.
  • 6. Sequential vs. synchronic (Do we do things one at a time or several things at once?)
    • The last important difference is the attitide of the culture to the environment.
  • 7. Internal vs. external control (Do we control our environment or are we controlled by it?)

Publications

  • 21 Leaders for the 21st Century (2001)
  • Seven Cultures of Capitalism with Charles Hampden-Turner (1993)
  • Riding the Waves of Culture - Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business (1993)

The knowledge: Fons Trompenaars

  Having researched and written extensively on how reconciling cultural differences can lead to competitive advantage, Fons Trompenaars is now widely recognised as a leading authority on organisational culture. He talks to Simon Lelic about what he sees as the five cultural dilemmas that sit at the heart of KM, and the need to move beyond ‘knowledge management’ and towards ‘knowledge leadership’.

  To Fons Trompenaars, knowledge management is, or should be, fundamentally a cultural issue. “Data becomes meaningful when you structure it in a certain way – it becomes information. When you structure information, it becomes knowledge, and when you structure knowledge it becomes science,” he tells me. “It is the process of structuring that adds meaning. And since different cultures have different ways of structuring meaning, you can see that, by definition, knowledge management is a cultural construct.” This, he feels, is what many KM practitioners still fail to grasp. Technology continues to drive knowledge management, when what is needed is a holistic, systemic approach, one that aligns the use of technology-based tools with the philosophical and cultural concepts that underpin knowledge management.

  The importance of culture in any sphere of human activity is something Trompenaars has been aware of for most of his life. The son of a French mother and a Dutch father, he grew up cognisant of the problems – and opportunities – that cultural differences often present. After reading economics in Amsterdam, Trompenaars studied for his PhD at Wharton School in Pennsylvania, sponsored by the Dutch government. Inspired by the likes of GeertHofstede, Hasan Ozbekhan and Russell Ackoff, the title of his thesis was ‘The organisation of meaning and the meaning of organisation’, a discourse on the way culture affects how we perceive organisational structures. After a number of years at Shell putting what he had learnt into practice, Trompenaars founded the Centre for International Business Studies in 1989, now Trompenaars Hampden-Turner, an Amsterdam-based consultancy specialising in – naturally – cross-cultural management.

  Working with his associate Charles Hampden-Turner and a team of 20, dilemma reconciliation is the approach that dominates the majority of Trompenaars’s time. “Processing knowledge effectively has become today’s most important source of competitive advantage,” he explains. “It determines the way you can apply and retain the core competencies within an organisation, and the way an organisation learns. In turn, effective knowledge management is dependent on the type of organisational culture in which it reconciles dilemmas.” Through his extensive research and Trompenaars Hampden-Turner’s ongoing work with clients, five central dilemmas have emerged that Trompenaars believes are key to the success of the vast majority of knowledge-management initiatives.

  The first of these he identifies as the universal versus the particular, a dilemma that he explores in great depth in his most recent book, Did the Pedestrian Die?[1]. “Imagine you’re riding in a car, you’re friend is speeding and he hits a pedestrian. You come to court, and your friend’s lawyer tells you not to worry, as you were the only witness. You know he was speeding, but what right does your friend have to ask you to lie? Would you do so?” This is a question that vividly demonstrates the divide between universalist and particularist thinking. Trompenaars’s research has revealed that 92 per cent of Americans, for example, would fall into the universalist camp: respect to the truth and to the law overrides any notion of there being exceptions to the rule. Conversely, the majority of those in South Korea, Venezuela and France (and indeed most of the Latin world) would tend to a more particularist standpoint: in Trompenaars’s experience, most ask for more information before they are able to decide whether they would lie for their friend, the most common question being, did the pedestrian die?

  In a corporate context, this cultural dilemma raises obvious difficulties for a knowledge manager, particularly those operating in a multinational organisation. Even on a functional level, it is a disparity that needs to be addressed. As Trompenaars says, while HR, finance and marketing professionals are generally universalist in their outlook, salespeople tend to be more particularist – they invariably demand exceptions for their clients, for example. For a KM system to succeed, therefore, it must reconcile the two. Implementing a standardised system in every office around the world and across functions will isolate the particularists, just as allowing every office and department to develop their own approach to KM will lead to chaos. “Mass customisation is the reconciliation of the universal and the particular,” he says. “You will not solve knowledge management through one approach alone; it’s about how you combine the two.”

  The second of Trompenaars’s five dilemmas is the individual versus the team, which is closely aligned to the third: specific and codified versus diffuse and implicit knowledge. Finding and lighting the cigar for which he had been hunting for the first 15 minutes of our interview, Trompenaars leans back in his chair and offers an example by way of explanation. “A short time ago we worked with General Motors to help integrate its joint venture with Isuzu, a Japanese truck-producing firm. Because their knowledge was so individualised, the Americans spent about 30 per cent of their time codifying their knowledge and writing it up in handbooks and procedures. The Japanese, on the other hand, never wrote anything down. Their knowledge was stored in the network of their relationships. This infuriated the Americans, but in a group-oriented culture, you need other ways of communicating knowledge. Whereas in an individualised society, there is a tendency to keep knowledge because knowledge is seen as power, in Japan, knowledge is only knowledge when it is shared; your status is dependent on how much you contribute to the group.”

  Eventually, GM’s managers succeeded in convincing their Japanese counterparts to compile more concise, less time-consuming manuals, which went some way to satisfying both parties, but the challenge of reconciling the individual and the group, particularly in an international organisation, is clear. Again, though, and as Trompenaars says, this dilemma is not unique to multinational settings. IBM experienced a similar problem in the US, he explains, a dilemma that was ultimately resolved by altering the firm’s system of rewards. “IBM gave bonuses depending on how many computers you sold as an individual salesperson. This led to pretty good sales, but also to a great deal of stress and internal competition, which the firm realised was impacting on sales potential.” As such, the company introduced a system whereby bonuses depended not on individual sales but on each salesperson making a presentation to their colleagues detailing what they had learnt from their customers. Their peers then voted on which presentation was most useful to them. Sales went up 38 per cent. “So individuals were held responsible for what they had learnt as part of a wider community,” says Trompenaars. “Talk about knowledge management in action!”

  The IBM example also illustrates a means of reconciling Trompenaars’s fourth dilemma – internal versus external control, or how to connect an organisation’s inside world with the external environment. “Effective knowledge management should not be constrained by the walls of the organisation,” he says. “Inner-oriented cultures prefer to start by enhancing internal processes, while externally-focused cultures begin with the insights and needs of the client. The internal and external environments need to be amalgamated in order to develop, not a balanced, but an integrated scorecard, in which the client has a direct influence on internal processes, which in turn serves to increase knowledge of the client.” Trompenaars points to Sony as a prime example of a firm that has done wonderfully well in this regard, in contrast to, say, Philips, which has patented a huge number of revolutionary products yet often struggles to find a market for them.

  The last of Trompenaars’s five dilemmas of knowledge management relates to the disparity between perceptions from the top down and from the bottom up. “Data about clients and products is stored in the heads of individual staff members,” he says. “Middle management translates it into information that in turn is organised as knowledge by top management. For effective KM, the reconciliation of this dilemma can be found in ‘middle-up-down’, in which middle management is the bridge between the standards of top management and the chaotic reality of those on the front line,” he says. It can also be reconciled by the ‘servant leader’, he continues, a leader who connects the bottom with the top through the style with which he or she leads, drawing their authority by serving the community as a whole. In Trompenaars’s view, this is an approach Goldman Sachs seems to have mastered.

  “In all these dilemmas, the context of organisational culture dictates the starting point of reconciliation,” says Trompenaars as he stubs out his cigar, “but effective knowledge management is dictated by the integrated scorecard of rules and exceptions, group and individual, explicit and implicit, top and bottom, and inner and outer worlds.” In fact, Trompenaars is adamant that the only real competence an effective leader needs is the ability to integrate opposites, a conclusion he also draws in his book, 21 Leaders for the 21st Century[2]. Perhaps, he suggests, ‘knowledge management’ would be better termed ‘knowledge leadership’. “After all, the essence of making knowledge fruitful is to reconcile the types of dilemmas I’ve mentioned,” he says, “and that’s essentially leadership, not management. In KM there is too much management and not enough leadership.” It is a convincing argument, but in a world where the promises of technology still tend to obscure the centrality of cultural concerns, it will only be the most forward-thinking companies that take heed.

參考文獻

  1. Trompenaars, F., Did the Pedestrian Die? (Capstone Publishing, 2003)
  2. Trompenaars, F. & Hampden-Turner, C., 21 Leaders for the 21st Century (Capstone Publishing, 2001)
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