冯斯·琼潘纳斯

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冯斯·琼潘纳斯(Fons Trompenaars)
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冯斯·琼潘纳斯(Fons Trompenaars)
冯斯·琼潘纳斯(Fons Trompenaars)——又译为冯·特姆彭纳斯

目录

冯斯·琼潘纳斯简介

  冯斯·琼潘纳斯(Fons Trompenaars)生于1952年。毕业于宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院,是跨文化管理的开创者和倡导者之一,曾先后在18个国家开设了1000多次跨文化管理培训课程,现任特姆彭纳斯公司总经理。该公司致力于国际管理咨询与培训服务,服务客户囊括了摩托罗拉壳牌庞巴迪喜力等世界一流企业,为企业经营管理做出了卓著的贡献。

  1994年,他和C.H.特纳(Charles Hampden Turner)合作出版了《资本主义的七种文化》,他的声誉源于他在现代管理文化方面的研究。是位于荷兰阿姆斯特丹的国际商业研究中心的负责人。

主要贡献

  讨论管理者经济全球化过程中可能会遇到的各种文化因素是如何影响人们的行动的,列举几种文化的冲突,著有《跨越文化浪潮》等。

  一、特朗皮纳斯的组织文化模型

  冯斯·琼潘纳斯(Fons Trompenaars)即“弗恩斯·特朗皮纳斯”根据他的组织文化纬度将组织文化分为四种类型:家族型组织文化保育器型组织文化导弹型组织文化埃菲尔铁塔型组织文化

影响世界进程的100位管理大师
1.亚当·斯密
(Adam Smith,1723-1790)
2.罗伯特·欧文
(Robert Owen,1771-1858)
3.查尔斯·巴贝奇
(Charles Babbage,1792-1871)
4.弗雷德里克·W·泰勒
(Frederick W. Taylor,1856-1915)
5.卡尔·巴思
(Carl G. Barth,1860-1939)
6.亨利·甘特
(Henry L. Gantt,1861-1919)
7.弗兰克·吉尔布雷斯
(Frank B. Gilbreth,1868-1924)
8.莉莲·吉尔布雷斯
(Lillian Moller Gilbreth,1878-1972)
9.哈林顿·埃默森
(Harrington Emerson,1853-1931)
10.莫里斯·库克
(Morris Cooke,1872-1960)
11.亨利·法约尔
(Henry Fayol,1841-1925)
12.马克斯·韦伯
(Max Weber,1864-1920)
13.林德尔·厄威克
(Lyndall F. Urwick,1891-1984)
14.卢瑟·古利克
(Luther H. Gulick,1892-1993)
15.玛丽·帕克·福莱特
(Mary Parker Follett,1868-l933)
16.雨果·孟斯特伯格
(Hugo Munsterberg,1863-l9l6)
17.乔治·埃尔顿·梅奥
(George Elton Mayo,1880-1949)
18.弗里茨·罗特利斯伯格
(Fritz J. Roethlisberger,1898-1974)
19.赫伯特·西蒙
(Herbert A. Simon)
20.亚伯拉罕·马斯洛
(Abraham Maslow,1908-l970)
21.克莱顿·阿尔德佛
(Clayton Alderfer)
22.戴维·麦克利兰
(David McClelland)
23.道格拉斯·麦克雷戈
(Douglas McGregor,1906-1964年)
24.约翰·莫尔斯
(John Morse)
25.威廉·奥奇
(William G. Ouchi)
26.克瑞斯·阿吉里斯
(Chris Argyris)
27.库尔特·勒温
(Kurt Lewin,1890 - 1947)
28.利兰·布雷德福
(Leland Bradfurd)
29.伯尔赫斯·弗雷德里克·斯金纳
(B. F. Skinner)
30.阿尔伯特·班杜拉
(Albert Bandura)
31.莱曼·波特
(Lyman Porter)
32.维克托·弗鲁姆
(Victor H. Vroom)
33.弗雷德里克·赫茨伯格
(Frederick Herzberg)
34.斯塔西·亚当斯
(J. Stacy. Adams)
35.哈罗德·凯利
(Harold H. Kelley)
36.哈罗德·孔茨
(Harold koontz,1908-1984)
37.切斯特·巴纳德
(Chester Barnard,1886-1961)
38.斯坦利·西肖尔
(Stanley E. Seashore)
39.罗伯特·坦南鲍姆
(Robert Tannenbaum)
40.俄亥俄州立大学研究小组
41.伦西斯·利克特
(Rensis Likert)(密执安研究)
42.罗伯特·布莱克
(Robert R. Blake)
43.弗雷德·菲德勒
(Fred E. Fiedler)
44.罗伯特·豪斯
(Robert J House)
45.保罗·赫塞
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46.理查德·约翰逊
(Richard A. Johnson)
47.弗里蒙特·卡斯特
(Fremont E. Kast)
48.詹姆斯·罗森茨韦克
(James E. Rosenzweig)
49.詹姆斯·米勒
(James Grier Miller)
50.梅萨·罗维奇
(M. Mesarovie)
51.彼得·德鲁克
(Peter Drucker)
52.欧内斯特·戴尔
(Ernest Dale)
53.威廉·纽曼
(William Newman)
54.艾尔弗雷德·P·斯隆
(Alfred P.Sloan)
55.保罗·劳伦斯
(Paul R. Lawrence)
56.弗雷德·卢桑斯
(Fred Luthars)
57.琼·伍德沃德
(英国,Joan Woodward)
58.亨利·明茨伯格
(Henry Mintzberg)
59.埃尔伍德·斯潘塞·伯法
(Elwood Spencer Buffa)
60.W·爱德华兹·戴明
(W. Edwards Deming)
61.约瑟夫·朱兰
(Joseph Juran)
62.戴尔·卡耐基
(Dale Carnegie)
63.詹姆士·钱皮
(James Champy)
64.马文·鲍尔
(Marvin Bower)
65.大前研一
(Kenichi Ohmae)
66.汤姆·彼得斯
(Tom Peters)
67.布鲁斯·亨德森
(Bruce Henderson)
68.亨利·福特
(Henry Ford)
69.小托马斯·沃森
(Thomas Watson Jr.)
70.戴维·帕卡德
(David Packard)
71.盛田昭夫
(Akito Morita)
72.松下幸之助
(Konosuke Matsushita)
73.罗伯特·汤赛德
(Robert Townsend)
74.哈罗德·杰宁
(Harold Geneen)
75.伊戈尔·安索夫
(Igor Ansoff)
76.迈克尔·波特
(Michael Porter)
77.加里·哈默尔
(Gary Hamel)
78.理查德·帕斯卡尔
(RiChard Pascale)
79.罗莎贝斯·莫斯·坎特
(Rosabeth Moss kanter)
80.查尔斯·汉迪
(Charles Handy)
81.艾尔弗雷德·D·钱德勒
(Alfred Chandler)
82.苏曼特拉·戈沙尔
(Sumantra Ghoshal)
83.彼得·圣吉
(Peter Senge)
84.吉尔特·霍夫斯塔德
(Geert Hofstede)
85.冯斯·琼潘纳斯
(Fons Trompenaars)
86.艾德佳·沙因
(Edgar Schein)
87.埃里奥特·杰奎斯
(Elliott Jaques)
88.阿尔文·托夫勒
(Alvin Toffler)
89.约翰·奈斯比特
(John Naisitt)
90.玛丽·帕克·福列特
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91.沃伦·本尼斯
(Warren Bennis)
92.劳伦斯·彼得
(Laurence Peter)
93.西奥多·莱维特
(Theodore Levitt)
94.菲利普·科特勒
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95.杰伊·洛希
(Jay W. Lorsch)
96.爱德华·劳勒
(Edward Lawler)
97.沃伦·施密特
(Warren H. Schmidt)
98.简·莫顿
(Jane S. Mouton)
99.特伦斯·米切尔
(Terence R. Mitchell)
100.肯尼斯·布兰查德
(Kenneth Blanchard)
[编辑]

  1、家族型组织文化:家族型组织文化可能是最古老的一种文化,这是一种与人相关的文化,而不是以任务为导向的。在这种文化中,组织的领导者就像是组织的“父亲”,有较高的权威和权利。组织更倾向于直觉的学习而不是理性的学习,更重视组织成员的发展而不是更好的利用员工。当组织出现危机,通常都不会被公布出来,所以尽管在组织内部温暖、亲密和友好,但是这种内部一体化是以较差的外部适应性为代价的,他们能够在相互拥抱和亲吻之中破产倒闭。属于这类型组织文化的国家有:日本、巴西、土耳其、巴基斯坦、西班牙、意大利、菲律宾。

  2、保育器型组织文化:保育器型组织文化是一种既以人为导向,又强调平等的文化,典型的代表就是在硅谷。这种文化富于创造性,孕育着新的观点。由于强调平等,所以这种文化的组织结构是最精简的,等级也是最少的。在这样的文化中,组织成员共同承担责任并寻求解决办法。

  3、导弹型组织文化:导弹型组织文化是一种平等的、以任务为导向的文化。在这种文化中,任务通常都是由小组或者项目团队完成的,但是这种小组都是临时性的,任务完成,小组就会解散。成员们所做的工作都不是预先设定好的,当有需要完成的任务时,便必须去做。属于这类型组织文化的国家有:美国、英国、挪威、爱尔兰。  

  4、埃菲尔铁塔型组织文化:称之为埃菲尔铁塔文化就是因为具有这种类型文化的组织结构看起来很像埃菲尔铁塔,等级较多,且底层员工较多,越到高层人数越少。每一层对于其下的一层都有清晰的责任,所以组织员工都是小心谨慎的。对组织的任何不满都要通过一定的章程和实情调查才有可能反映到高层管理者。在这种文化的组织中,组织成员都相信需要必需的技能才能保住现在职位,也需要更进一步的技能才能升迁。属于这类型组织文化的国家有:德国、法国、苏格兰、澳大利亚、加拿大。

  二、ERP项目的核心是“人”

  ERP是一把手工程。一把手要重视项目,拿ERP当作企业最关键的问题之一来做。但一把手并不需要亲力亲为,只需在ERP项目中解决最核心的问题——选择合适的执行人、充分授权、合理配置资源。尧也好、舜也好、上帝也好,莫不如此。

  在整个实施周期内,ERP是项目经理的项目。制定可行的计划、鼓舞士气并率众执行、解决执行中的关键难题是项目经理的三大任务。ERP系统是企业每个操作者的系统。无论是项目团队还是最终用户,都要理性面对。冯斯·琼潘纳斯把人分为“普遍主义者(如美国、加拿大、澳大利亚人)”和“具体主义者(如中国、韩国、马来西亚人)”。前者提倡“唯一最佳方式”,即在任何情况下都适用的一系列准则,因此非常容易接受这种被看作是企业最佳实践的ERP系统;后者则注重每个特殊情况下的特殊性,在看到ERP系统时,满眼都是“和我们这里不一样”。在中国实施ERP系统,最基层的员工、最基本的数据,解决不好都有可能成为压倒骆驼的最后一根稻草。冯斯·琼潘纳斯说:“国际化的经理人需要的不只是对文化差异的理解。他或她应该尊重差异,调和文化交叉难题,并对因此形成的多样性善加利用。国际化经理人应该调和文化难题。”ERP项目的核心是“人”。

  三、规章制度企业文化建设具有举足轻重的作用

  冯斯·琼潘纳斯曾对企业制度有过一段精辟的论述:“如果想理解其他文化,首先必须懂得文化是一系列规则和方式。在一个特定社会的发展过程中,它的文化也逐渐演化,并成为解决各种反复出现的问题的标准。”

  企业的规章制度企业经营宗旨经营理念企业精神企业价值观的体现,因此说制度是企业文化的重要组成部分。通过制度可以看出一个企业倡导什么、限制什么;喜欢什么样的人、讨厌什么样的人;褒奖哪种人、惩罚哪种人等等。凡此种种,必然对企业员工的行为起到至关重要的导向作用,也体现了各个企业的特色。

Fons Trompenaars

  Fons Trompenaars is a Dutch author in the field of cross-cultural communication. His books include: Riding the Waves of Culture, Seven Cultures of Capitalism, Building Cross-Cultural Competence and 21 Leaders for the 21st Century.

  Trompenaars studied Economics at the Free University of Amsterdam and later earned a Ph.D. from Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, with a dissertation on differences in conceptions of organizational structure in various cultures. He experienced cultural differences firsthand at home, where he grew up speaking both French and Dutch, and then later at work with Shell in nine countries.

  Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner have developed a model of culture with seven dimensions. There are five orientations covering the ways in which human beings deal with each other.:

  • 1. Universalism vs. particularism (What is more important, rules or relationships?)
  • 2. Individualism vs. collectivism (communitarianism) (Do we function in a group or as individuals?)
  • 3. Neutral vs. emotional (Do we display our emotions?)
  • 4. Specific vs. diffuse (Is responsibility specifically assigned or diffusely accepted?)
  • 5. Achievement vs. ascription (Do we have to prove ourselves to receive status or is it given to us?)
    • In addition there is a different way in which societies look at time.
  • 6. Sequential vs. synchronic (Do we do things one at a time or several things at once?)
    • The last important difference is the attitide of the culture to the environment.
  • 7. Internal vs. external control (Do we control our environment or are we controlled by it?)

Publications

  • 21 Leaders for the 21st Century (2001)
  • Seven Cultures of Capitalism with Charles Hampden-Turner (1993)
  • Riding the Waves of Culture - Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business (1993)

The knowledge: Fons Trompenaars

  Having researched and written extensively on how reconciling cultural differences can lead to competitive advantage, Fons Trompenaars is now widely recognised as a leading authority on organisational culture. He talks to Simon Lelic about what he sees as the five cultural dilemmas that sit at the heart of KM, and the need to move beyond ‘knowledge management’ and towards ‘knowledge leadership’.

  To Fons Trompenaars, knowledge management is, or should be, fundamentally a cultural issue. “Data becomes meaningful when you structure it in a certain way – it becomes information. When you structure information, it becomes knowledge, and when you structure knowledge it becomes science,” he tells me. “It is the process of structuring that adds meaning. And since different cultures have different ways of structuring meaning, you can see that, by definition, knowledge management is a cultural construct.” This, he feels, is what many KM practitioners still fail to grasp. Technology continues to drive knowledge management, when what is needed is a holistic, systemic approach, one that aligns the use of technology-based tools with the philosophical and cultural concepts that underpin knowledge management.

  The importance of culture in any sphere of human activity is something Trompenaars has been aware of for most of his life. The son of a French mother and a Dutch father, he grew up cognisant of the problems – and opportunities – that cultural differences often present. After reading economics in Amsterdam, Trompenaars studied for his PhD at Wharton School in Pennsylvania, sponsored by the Dutch government. Inspired by the likes of GeertHofstede, Hasan Ozbekhan and Russell Ackoff, the title of his thesis was ‘The organisation of meaning and the meaning of organisation’, a discourse on the way culture affects how we perceive organisational structures. After a number of years at Shell putting what he had learnt into practice, Trompenaars founded the Centre for International Business Studies in 1989, now Trompenaars Hampden-Turner, an Amsterdam-based consultancy specialising in – naturally – cross-cultural management.

  Working with his associate Charles Hampden-Turner and a team of 20, dilemma reconciliation is the approach that dominates the majority of Trompenaars’s time. “Processing knowledge effectively has become today’s most important source of competitive advantage,” he explains. “It determines the way you can apply and retain the core competencies within an organisation, and the way an organisation learns. In turn, effective knowledge management is dependent on the type of organisational culture in which it reconciles dilemmas.” Through his extensive research and Trompenaars Hampden-Turner’s ongoing work with clients, five central dilemmas have emerged that Trompenaars believes are key to the success of the vast majority of knowledge-management initiatives.

  The first of these he identifies as the universal versus the particular, a dilemma that he explores in great depth in his most recent book, Did the Pedestrian Die?[1]. “Imagine you’re riding in a car, you’re friend is speeding and he hits a pedestrian. You come to court, and your friend’s lawyer tells you not to worry, as you were the only witness. You know he was speeding, but what right does your friend have to ask you to lie? Would you do so?” This is a question that vividly demonstrates the divide between universalist and particularist thinking. Trompenaars’s research has revealed that 92 per cent of Americans, for example, would fall into the universalist camp: respect to the truth and to the law overrides any notion of there being exceptions to the rule. Conversely, the majority of those in South Korea, Venezuela and France (and indeed most of the Latin world) would tend to a more particularist standpoint: in Trompenaars’s experience, most ask for more information before they are able to decide whether they would lie for their friend, the most common question being, did the pedestrian die?

  In a corporate context, this cultural dilemma raises obvious difficulties for a knowledge manager, particularly those operating in a multinational organisation. Even on a functional level, it is a disparity that needs to be addressed. As Trompenaars says, while HR, finance and marketing professionals are generally universalist in their outlook, salespeople tend to be more particularist – they invariably demand exceptions for their clients, for example. For a KM system to succeed, therefore, it must reconcile the two. Implementing a standardised system in every office around the world and across functions will isolate the particularists, just as allowing every office and department to develop their own approach to KM will lead to chaos. “Mass customisation is the reconciliation of the universal and the particular,” he says. “You will not solve knowledge management through one approach alone; it’s about how you combine the two.”

  The second of Trompenaars’s five dilemmas is the individual versus the team, which is closely aligned to the third: specific and codified versus diffuse and implicit knowledge. Finding and lighting the cigar for which he had been hunting for the first 15 minutes of our interview, Trompenaars leans back in his chair and offers an example by way of explanation. “A short time ago we worked with General Motors to help integrate its joint venture with Isuzu, a Japanese truck-producing firm. Because their knowledge was so individualised, the Americans spent about 30 per cent of their time codifying their knowledge and writing it up in handbooks and procedures. The Japanese, on the other hand, never wrote anything down. Their knowledge was stored in the network of their relationships. This infuriated the Americans, but in a group-oriented culture, you need other ways of communicating knowledge. Whereas in an individualised society, there is a tendency to keep knowledge because knowledge is seen as power, in Japan, knowledge is only knowledge when it is shared; your status is dependent on how much you contribute to the group.”

  Eventually, GM’s managers succeeded in convincing their Japanese counterparts to compile more concise, less time-consuming manuals, which went some way to satisfying both parties, but the challenge of reconciling the individual and the group, particularly in an international organisation, is clear. Again, though, and as Trompenaars says, this dilemma is not unique to multinational settings. IBM experienced a similar problem in the US, he explains, a dilemma that was ultimately resolved by altering the firm’s system of rewards. “IBM gave bonuses depending on how many computers you sold as an individual salesperson. This led to pretty good sales, but also to a great deal of stress and internal competition, which the firm realised was impacting on sales potential.” As such, the company introduced a system whereby bonuses depended not on individual sales but on each salesperson making a presentation to their colleagues detailing what they had learnt from their customers. Their peers then voted on which presentation was most useful to them. Sales went up 38 per cent. “So individuals were held responsible for what they had learnt as part of a wider community,” says Trompenaars. “Talk about knowledge management in action!”

  The IBM example also illustrates a means of reconciling Trompenaars’s fourth dilemma – internal versus external control, or how to connect an organisation’s inside world with the external environment. “Effective knowledge management should not be constrained by the walls of the organisation,” he says. “Inner-oriented cultures prefer to start by enhancing internal processes, while externally-focused cultures begin with the insights and needs of the client. The internal and external environments need to be amalgamated in order to develop, not a balanced, but an integrated scorecard, in which the client has a direct influence on internal processes, which in turn serves to increase knowledge of the client.” Trompenaars points to Sony as a prime example of a firm that has done wonderfully well in this regard, in contrast to, say, Philips, which has patented a huge number of revolutionary products yet often struggles to find a market for them.

  The last of Trompenaars’s five dilemmas of knowledge management relates to the disparity between perceptions from the top down and from the bottom up. “Data about clients and products is stored in the heads of individual staff members,” he says. “Middle management translates it into information that in turn is organised as knowledge by top management. For effective KM, the reconciliation of this dilemma can be found in ‘middle-up-down’, in which middle management is the bridge between the standards of top management and the chaotic reality of those on the front line,” he says. It can also be reconciled by the ‘servant leader’, he continues, a leader who connects the bottom with the top through the style with which he or she leads, drawing their authority by serving the community as a whole. In Trompenaars’s view, this is an approach Goldman Sachs seems to have mastered.

  “In all these dilemmas, the context of organisational culture dictates the starting point of reconciliation,” says Trompenaars as he stubs out his cigar, “but effective knowledge management is dictated by the integrated scorecard of rules and exceptions, group and individual, explicit and implicit, top and bottom, and inner and outer worlds.” In fact, Trompenaars is adamant that the only real competence an effective leader needs is the ability to integrate opposites, a conclusion he also draws in his book, 21 Leaders for the 21st Century[2]. Perhaps, he suggests, ‘knowledge management’ would be better termed ‘knowledge leadership’. “After all, the essence of making knowledge fruitful is to reconcile the types of dilemmas I’ve mentioned,” he says, “and that’s essentially leadership, not management. In KM there is too much management and not enough leadership.” It is a convincing argument, but in a world where the promises of technology still tend to obscure the centrality of cultural concerns, it will only be the most forward-thinking companies that take heed.

参考文献

  1. Trompenaars, F., Did the Pedestrian Die? (Capstone Publishing, 2003)
  2. Trompenaars, F. & Hampden-Turner, C., 21 Leaders for the 21st Century (Capstone Publishing, 2001)
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