簡·莫頓

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简·莫顿(Jane S. Mouton)
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簡·莫頓(Jane S. Mouton)

簡·莫頓(Jane S. Mouton,1930年4月15日- 1987年12月7日):管理方格理論的提出者

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簡·莫頓簡介

  簡·穆頓,1930年出生於美國。1957年在得克薩斯大學獲得心理學哲學博士學位,不久擔任該校心理學系副教授,專門從事行為科學,特別是組織與管理領域的研究。

  曾經是科學方法公司總裁及共同創辦人,和羅伯特·布萊克共同研發管理方格理論Managerial Grid)。

  她是美國心理學會會員,擁有產業和組織心理學暨美國人心理學委員會的證照,美國人科學促進協會會員。她除了在組織發展領域的研究之外,也參與順從、輸贏衝突動力學、及創造性決策等主題的研究。

簡·莫頓的學術貢獻及研究領域

  簡·莫頓和羅伯特·布萊克共同發展了管理方格理論(Managerial Grid)。這是一個關於領導效果和管理實踐的理論,它對那些試圖把生產中的兩大要素--人和產品結合起來的基礎研究進驗證和比較。穆頓與布菜克共同開展的研究結果表明,通過加強參與、公開、調查研究、提倡、公正和批評等領導手段可以提高個人和組織的成效。

  穆頓探索的另一個領域是共同參與的學習模式。共同參與是一種以學生為中心的教學方法,它要求培養學生的自我責任感。在為此而制訂的學習計劃里,學生被看作是學習過程中的積极參与者,他們共同參與傾聽、解釋、評價和互相間的影響。

影響世界進程的100位管理大師
1.亞當·斯密
(Adam Smith,1723-1790)
2.羅伯特·歐文
(Robert Owen,1771-1858)
3.查爾斯·巴貝奇
(Charles Babbage,1792-1871)
4.弗雷德里克·W·泰勒
(Frederick W. Taylor,1856-1915)
5.卡爾·巴思
(Carl G. Barth,1860-1939)
6.亨利·甘特
(Henry L. Gantt,1861-1919)
7.弗蘭克·吉爾佈雷斯
(Frank B. Gilbreth,1868-1924)
8.莉蓮·吉爾佈雷斯
(Lillian Moller Gilbreth,1878-1972)
9.哈林頓·埃默森
(Harrington Emerson,1853-1931)
10.莫裡斯·庫克
(Morris Cooke,1872-1960)
11.亨利·法約爾
(Henry Fayol,1841-1925)
12.馬克斯·韋伯
(Max Weber,1864-1920)
13.林德爾·厄威克
(Lyndall F. Urwick,1891-1984)
14.盧瑟·古利克
(Luther H. Gulick,1892-1993)
15.瑪麗·帕克·福萊特
(Mary Parker Follett,1868-l933)
16.雨果·孟斯特伯格
(Hugo Munsterberg,1863-l9l6)
17.喬治·埃爾頓·梅奧
(George Elton Mayo,1880-1949)
18.弗里茨·羅特利斯伯格
(Fritz J. Roethlisberger,1898-1974)
19.赫伯特·西蒙
(Herbert A. Simon)
20.亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛
(Abraham Maslow,1908-l970)
21.克萊頓·阿爾德佛
(Clayton Alderfer)
22.戴維·麥克利蘭
(David McClelland)
23.道格拉斯·麥克雷戈
(Douglas McGregor,1906-1964年)
24.約翰·莫爾斯
(John Morse)
25.威廉·奧奇
(William G. Ouchi)
26.克瑞斯·阿吉裡斯
(Chris Argyris)
27.庫爾特·勒溫
(Kurt Lewin,1890 - 1947)
28.利蘭·佈雷德福
(Leland Bradfurd)
29.伯爾赫斯·弗雷德里克·斯金納
(B. F. Skinner)
30.阿爾伯特·班杜拉
(Albert Bandura)
31.萊曼·波特
(Lyman Porter)
32.維克托·弗魯姆
(Victor H. Vroom)
33.弗雷德里克·赫茨伯格
(Frederick Herzberg)
34.斯塔西·亞當斯
(J. Stacy. Adams)
35.哈羅德·凱利
(Harold H. Kelley)
36.哈羅德·孔茨
(Harold koontz,1908-1984)
37.切斯特·巴納德
(Chester Barnard,1886-1961)
38.斯坦利·西肖爾
(Stanley E. Seashore)
39.羅伯特·坦南鮑姆
(Robert Tannenbaum)
40.俄亥俄州立大學研究小組
41.倫西斯·利克特
(Rensis Likert)(密執安研究)
42.羅伯特·布萊克
(Robert R. Blake)
43.弗雷德·菲德勒
(Fred E. Fiedler)
44.羅伯特·豪斯
(Robert J House)
45.保羅·赫塞
(Paul Hersey)
46.理查德·約翰遜
(Richard A. Johnson)
47.弗里蒙特·卡斯特
(Fremont E. Kast)
48.詹姆斯·羅森茨韋克
(James E. Rosenzweig)
49.詹姆斯·米勒
(James Grier Miller)
50.梅薩·羅維奇
(M. Mesarovie)
51.彼得·德魯克
(Peter Drucker)
52.歐內斯特·戴爾
(Ernest Dale)
53.威廉·紐曼
(William Newman)
54.艾爾弗雷德·P·斯隆
(Alfred P.Sloan)
55.保羅·勞倫斯
(Paul R. Lawrence)
56.弗雷德·盧桑斯
(Fred Luthars)
57.瓊·伍德沃德
(英國,Joan Woodward)
58.亨利·明茨伯格
(Henry Mintzberg)
59.埃爾伍德·斯潘塞·伯法
(Elwood Spencer Buffa)
60.W·愛德華茲·戴明
(W. Edwards Deming)
61.約瑟夫·朱蘭
(Joseph Juran)
62.戴爾·卡耐基
(Dale Carnegie)
63.詹姆士·錢皮
(James Champy)
64.馬文·鮑爾
(Marvin Bower)
65.大前研一
(Kenichi Ohmae)
66.湯姆·彼得斯
(Tom Peters)
67.布魯斯·亨德森
(Bruce Henderson)
68.亨利·福特
(Henry Ford)
69.小托馬斯·沃森
(Thomas Watson Jr.)
70.戴維·帕卡德
(David Packard)
71.盛田昭夫
(Akito Morita)
72.松下幸之助
(Konosuke Matsushita)
73.羅伯特·湯賽德
(Robert Townsend)
74.哈羅德·傑寧
(Harold Geneen)
75.伊戈爾·安索夫
(Igor Ansoff)
76.邁克爾·波特
(Michael Porter)
77.加里·哈默爾
(Gary Hamel)
78.理查德·帕斯卡爾
(RiChard Pascale)
79.羅莎貝斯·莫斯·坎特
(Rosabeth Moss kanter)
80.查爾斯·漢迪
(Charles Handy)
81.艾爾弗雷德·D·錢德勒
(Alfred Chandler)
82.蘇曼特拉·戈沙爾
(Sumantra Ghoshal)
83.彼得·聖吉
(Peter Senge)
84.吉爾特·霍夫斯塔德
(Geert Hofstede)
85.馮斯·瓊潘納斯
(Fons Trompenaars)
86.艾德佳·沙因
(Edgar Schein)
87.埃里奧特·傑奎斯
(Elliott Jaques)
88.阿爾文·托夫勒
(Alvin Toffler)
89.約翰·奈斯比特
(John Naisitt)
90.瑪麗·帕克·福列特
(Mary Parker Follett)
91.沃倫·本尼斯
(Warren Bennis)
92.勞倫斯·彼得
(Laurence Peter)
93.西奧多·萊維特
(Theodore Levitt)
94.菲利普·科特勒
(Philip Kotler)
95.傑伊·洛希
(Jay W. Lorsch)
96.愛德華·勞勒
(Edward Lawler)
97.沃倫·施密特
(Warren H. Schmidt)
98.簡·莫頓
(Jane S. Mouton)
99.特倫斯·米切爾
(Terence R. Mitchell)
100.肯尼斯·布蘭查德
(Kenneth Blanchard)
[編輯]

簡·莫頓的主要著作

  莫頓和布萊克於1964年合著了《管理方格》(The Managerial Grid)一書,提出了研究領導方式及其有效性的管理方格理論。這本書出版後得到學界的廣泛重視和業界的高度歡迎,十多年時間,在美國就銷出近百萬冊。

  1978年,他們把這本書修訂再版,更名為《新管理方格》。

  此外她還與羅伯特·布萊克共同著有《秘書方格》、《教育行政方格》。

Biography

  Jane Srygley Mouton is not mentioned in the volumes of Who’s Who among American Women, Notable American Women, or even the Encyclopedia of American Biographies. Despite being a woman noted for her intellectual prowess, Mouton was nonetheless a female scholar in the 1950’s and 1960’s (Kleiner, 1996). Like many promising women of the time, her history seems to have been overlooked. In fact, from the 1940’s through 1960’s noteworthy women were generally disregarded, especially in the world of academia (Dubois, 2006). Dr. Cox often tells his COM 585 class the story of how Dr. Landini thought it was so “cute” that he was a department chair at such a young man. Sadly, this seems to have been the general opinion directed toward all female scholars throughout these decades. The research produced by these women may have been revolutionary, but instead of regarded as legitimate, it was seen as a “cute” attempt to be scholarly. Thus, women were patted on their heads for good behavior and sent back to their offices. Unfortunately, there is truth to the statement that there is strength in numbers, and during Mouton’s prime females in the academic world did not yet have the numbers to be heard. In fact, co-ed colleges had only become widely acceptable in the 1950’s. (Miller-Bernal & Poulson, 2004). Thus, at the time Mouton graduated with her Bachelor of Science in mathematics, there were hardly any female faculty members present at universities. She herself was among the original academic pioneers fighting to shift the gender balance, especially in the male dominated field of mathematics. In fact, Jane Srygley Mouton was among the most solid type of mathematician as was proven when she crossed over to furthermore become a scholar of management, psychology, and communication. Mouton was a former student of Robert Blake from the University of Texas, which was a fortunate connection for a female in the 1950’s. Together they are famous for their creation of the aforementioned Managerial Grid which was admittedly composed of Mouton’s creation and Blake’s name (Bokeno, 2007). The Grid came into existence when Blake and Mouton were hired as consultants by Exxon. It was during this time that their supposedly combined efforts produced the grid as a method of finding a median between McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y workers (Capstone, 2003). Originally, their work was reflected upon the National Teaching Laboratories (NTL) who they had worked with as a means of bringing their ideas into the organizations (Kleiner, 1996). In fact, Mouton was among few women to lead one of the NTL’s T-Groups (Training Groups) during the 1950’s. However, Blake and Mouton’s methodology was more focused on treating the organizational issues rather than simply diagnosing them. This was contrary to standard NTL practices. Thus, they separated from the company. Blake had even copyrighted the Grid so that only by franchising with him could someone else use the Grid for training, thus ensuring that everyone would use it in the way Blake and Mouton deemed fitting. Therefore, through their work with NTL leading T-Group’s and the creation of Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Blake became famous and Mouton was seemingly allowed to ride on his coat tails, eventually co-founding Scientific Methods, Inc in 1961 (Ultimate, 2003). On a more personal note, Jane Srygley was born on April 15, 1930 in Port Arthur, TX (Contemporary, 2004). Her father, Theodore Quarles Srygley, was an educator and her mother, Grace Stumpe Srygley, was a psychologist. She married an investor, Jackson, C. Mouton, Jr. on December 22, 1953. The Moutons had two daughters named Jane Martha and Jacquelyn Cruse. Kleiner (1996) remarked that individuals who knew her well regarded her as someone who loved being outdoors, especially around horses. She was furthermore considered by that group to be highly intelligent, well composed, and devoted to her work. Perhaps if the rest of the world had recognized those same qualities, she would be remembered as a scholar rather than Blake’s assistant. Jane Srygley Mouton received her Bachelor of Science in Mathematical Education from the University of Texas at Austin in 1950 and later returned to complete a PhD in 1957 (Contemporary, 2004). She also received a Masters of Science from Florida State University in 1951. She was certainly loyal to the University of Texas at Austin considering that her working positions include being a research scientist from 1953-1957, a social science researcher and instructor from 1957-1959, and assistant professor of psychology from 1959-1964. She was furthermore vice-president of Scientific Methods Inc. from 1961 -1981 and has presided as president of the company since 1982.

Honors

  • Honorary member of the faculty at the Institute of Business Administration and Management in Tokyo, Japan.
  • Best Writing Award from the American Society for Training and Development (1961-1962).
  • Book Award from the American College of Hospital Administrators for The New Managerial Grid (1980).
  • Book of the Year Award from the American Journal of Nursing (1982) for Grid Approaches for Managerial Leadership in Nursing.
  • Book of the Year Award from the American Management Association (1982) for Productivity: The Human Side.
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