MRO管理

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MRO管理(Maintenance、Repair and Operations,維護、維修和運營)

目錄

什麼是MRO管理

  MRO,是英文Maintenance、Repair and Operations三個詞的縮寫,指工廠或企業對其生產和工作設施、設備進行保養、維修,保證其運行所需要的非生產性物料,這些物料可能是用於設備保養、維修的備品備件,也可能是保證企業正常運行的相關設備,耗材等物資。

Maintenance, repair and operations or maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it become out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). In everyday usage, the term MRO is usually associated with aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul. While most companies in the aircraft MRO space are small, location specific operations, the large airlines like Singapore Airlines, Lufthansa, Aeroflot etc. have separate business units to service their own equipment.

The MRO business is seeing a major boom with the emergence of international carriers and private aviation in Asia. The MRO business in India alone is expected to grow to $45Bn from the current $0.5Bn in the next decade.

All actions which have the objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its required function. The actions include the combination of all technical and corresponding administrative, managerial, and supervision actions.[1]

Engineering

In telecommunication, and engineering in general, the term maintenance has the following meanings:

1. Any activity – such as tests, measurements, replacements, adjustments and repairs — intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions.

2. For material — all action taken to retain material in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. It includes inspection, testing, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation.

3. For material — all supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission.

4. For material — the routine recurring work required to keep a facility (plant, building, structure, ground facility, utility system, or other real property) in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose.

Manufacturers and Industrial Supply Companies often refer to MRO as opposed to Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM). OEM includes any activity related to the direct manufacture of goods, where MRO refers to any maintenance and repair activity to keep a manufacturing plant running.

Industrial supply companies can generally be sorted into two types:

  • the ones who cater to the MRO market generally carry a broad range of items such as fasteners, conveyors, cleaning goods, plumbing, and tools to keep a plant running.
  • OEM supply companies generally provide a smaller range of goods in much larger quantities with much lower prices, selling materials that will be regularly consumed in the manufacturing process to create the finished item.

MRO software

In many organizations because of the number of devices or products that need to be maintained or the complexity of systems, there is a need to manage the information with software packages. This is particularly the case in aerospace (e.g. airline fleets), military installations, large plants (e.g. manufacturing, power generation, petrochemical) and ships.

These software tools help engineers and technicians in increasing the availability of systems and reducing costs and repair times as well as reducing material supply time and increasing material availability by improving supply chain communication.

As MRO involves working with an organization’s products, resources, suppliers and customers, MRO packages have to interface with many enterprise business software systems (PLM,EAM, ERP, SCM, CRM).

One of the functions of such software is the configuration of bills of materials or BOMs, taking the component parts list from engineering (eBOM) and manufacturing (mBOM) and updating it from “as delivered” through “as maintained” to “as used”.

Another function is project planning logistics, for example identifying the critical path on the list of tasks to be carried out (inspection, diagnosis, locate/order parts and service) to calculate turnaround times (TAT).

Other tasks that software can perform:

  • Planning operations,
  • Managing execution of events,
  • Management of assets (parts, tools and equipment inventories),
  • Knowledge-base data on:
    • Maintenance service history,
    • Serial numbered parts,
    • Reliability data: MTBF (mean time between failures), MTTB (mean time to breakdown), MTBR (mean time between removals),
    • Maintenance and repair documentation and best practices,
    • Warranty/guarantee documents.

Many of these tasks are addressed in Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS). Data standards have been developed around these activities, most notably EAMXML and MIMOSA

中國MRO採購及管理存在的問題

  中國MRO的採購及管理存在眾多的問題。當然對中國MRO的採購與管理首先可找到市場的原因,比如,MRO供應市場比較分散,還遠未形成規模。MRO供應商規模小,品種少,管理不規範,資金缺乏,網路、渠道不多,不能提供多少增值的服務等等。縱然如此,我們也不能否認企業在MRO的採購和管理上存在的問題:

  (1)企業將主要註意力集中在直接性生產物料的採購上,MRO採購並未得到充分有效的重視和管理;

  (2)企業MRO採購行為往往分散在不同的職能部門,集中管理實現程度較差,部門間溝通不流暢,導致工作量的加大和潛在的採購錯誤風險;

  (3)採購部門管理設置和人員配置存在問題,採購人員缺乏足夠的專業知識,常常需要相關部門的協助才能確定物料規格型號、缺乏對採購成本和風險的科學認識等;

  (4)大多製造企業備件品種多、採購批量小、消耗低且無規律,大部分備件只能從市場上眾多的零售商採購,造成備件質量無法保證,嚴重影響企業的正常生產;

  (5)由於企業對設備維護和維修計劃性不強,而且不很關註歷史數據的發掘和需求的預測,導致不確定的提前期和不合理的庫存

  (6)缺乏對供應商戰略管理。據調查估計,備件採購花費製造企業採購部門約80%的精力,但採購金額卻只占企業採購金額的10%左右。而且採購人員的精力主要花在採購業務的具體運作上,根本談不上對供應商的戰略管理,甚至有的企業連自己到底有多少家供應商都不清楚。

MRO管理髮生的變化

  市場競爭只會是越來越激烈,在企業降低自身生產成本的強烈願望下,MRO管理正在悄然地發生著變化,這表現在不同層面的活動之中。

  (1)企業內部的優化管理

  曾經,某大型鋼鐵公司的備件採購管理實行的是設備處與二級生產廠的二級核算管理方式,彼此責任不夠明確,重覆核算,工作效率低下。後來,該公司對設備備件採購實行一級核算、集中統一管理,理順了備件採購管理職能,強化了採購資金管理,提高了資金使用效率

  (2)區域性企業間及與供應商的合作

  蘭州鋁業下屬炭素廠的吸殘稱設備,由於變頻器的突然故障,造成電機無法啟動,使得整個高樓部系統生產線無法正常生產。而吸殘稱是德國申克公司的產品,與之配套的變頻器雖為西門子產品,但是西門子公司為申克公司專門生產的,屬非通用件。該廠與申克公司和多家供應商進行了聯繫,瞭解到全國範圍內無此貨,從外商處訂貨時間過長,需3個月的時間。於是他們遂與甘肅一家技術實力較強的供應商及青海橋頭鋁業獲得聯繫,最終調配到此備件,解決了技術問題,使生產得以恢復。由此,西北地區的鋁業公司認識到,它們之間必要聯合起來,互通有無,並與供應商建立戰略伙伴關係,才能進一步有效地降低庫存,達到增效益、降成本的目的。

  (3)全國範圍內MRO上戰略協作

  廣州珠鋼曾舉行過中國CSP工廠設備備件、維護技術討論會。會議聚集了廣州珠鋼、邯鋼、包鋼和西門子的設備管理人員,討論並簽訂CSP備件互換及支持協議。鑒於三家鋼鐵公司各自已投產的三條CSP生產線有部分設備的備件可以互換,為確保CSP生產線設備運行與維修的正常進行,有效降低備件庫存,降低流動資金占用率,經三家鋼鐵公司協商,就備件相互拆借、維修技術支持、備件分工庫存等方面達成協議;且在查清各公司庫存清單後,對於不常損壞、價值比較高的進口備件按協議分工進行儲備。

  上述不同層面的MRO管理優化和合作,主要集中在生產企業之間。未來,將向更高的形態邁進,即單個企業或企業群與MRO渠道集成供應商的戰略合作。事實上,企業都認識到這種戰略合作的重要性和必要性。這就為在中國的MRO渠道集成供應商提供了成長、發展的市場空間。

MRO管理的意義

  總部設在美國賓州的SDI公司是一家MRO渠道集成供應商,其業務包括各種MRO的採購、接收和供應,以及存貨的控制和管理等。該公司按照工廠的要求為它們提供金屬加工、設備維修和其他一些生產用物料,年採購額大概在530萬美元左右。作為一體化採購供應合同的一部分,SDI公司還使用自家的電腦系統管理工廠的工具庫。要保證在工具倉庫領料視窗的交付滿足率達到98%並不是一件容易的事情,因為,面對6萬個存儲單元,稍不註意就會造成缺貨。在工具庫的領料視窗,SDI的雇員幫助工廠的人處理領料申請,並直接把所需物料送到使用的地方。

  另一家MRO 渠道集成商Graybar公司專註於煉油廠的MRO供應,它所提供的採購管理增值服務有:努力幫助客戶識別用量大的產品以寄銷存貨的方式來保證供應(包括大約500種電工器材),併在存貨控制和滿足供應方面取得了令人滿意的平衡;保證客戶能夠及時瞭解各個煉油廠有關電工器材的採購支出情況;與產品的製造商一起設法保持產品價格的競爭性併為煉油廠引進專業技術支持,如邀請電工器材產品製造商到煉油廠專門就有關產品的技術問題開展培訓

  概括渠道集成商的產品與服務,可以包括以下方面:低成本、高質量的MRO(渠道集成);快速的物流配送網路;咨詢服務,優化企業的倉儲管理,提供新產品信息和產品應用方案;在整個供應鏈上企業的MRO供應的整體集成和優化。

  以前有一位總經理說過,管理MRO採購的最好方法就是擁有儘可能多的供應商,以便於壓價。這種傳統的思維方法已經不再適用於現代基於供應鏈管理的模式。只有更多的業務或職能(不僅MRO採購)藉助於專業化公司,我們才能更好地專註和提升自身核心能力。因此,我們才會看到,MRO渠道集成供應商悄悄向我們走來,並逐漸為人們所關註:西域機電(EHSY.com)作為較早在中國地區開拓MRO供應服務的供應商,基於電子商務方式,為企業提供一站式採購服務。它在獲得風投融資後,準備著它的飛速成長;具有政府背景的萬博港,在湖南長沙、株洲、湘潭三地建立了工業品大型連鎖超市,正攜巨資走向全國連鎖;去年下半年北美MRO分銷第一巨頭,固安捷正式落戶上海,進入中國市場,開始了它雄心勃勃的中國計劃。

  可以相信的是,中國巨大、成長的MRO市場,會有更多的MRO渠道集成供應商進入中國市場,縱橫捭闔,快速發展。對於它們,我們看到的可能只是它們大規模的旗艦店,統一規範的服務,而其背後支撐的其強大的物流體系、技術服務系統,這才是其最核心的部分。MRO分銷行業悄然崛起,也為中國的企業帶來更多的價值。

MRO的範圍

  實驗室設備、儀器儀錶

  氣動元件、氣動元器件

  液壓元器件、液壓工具

  自動化及工業控制

  低壓電器、電氣設備

  軸承、聯軸器、機械傳動及維護,機床消耗品

  電纜電線、附件

  燈具、光源、照明設備、聲光信號裝置

  動力源、電源、泵閥、工業暖通設備

  防爆工具、防水、防腐、防爆電氣

  急救產品、保健設備、醫療衛生設備

  化學品泄漏控制、 化學品存儲、化學品分裝

  員工安全防護、應急救援裝備、PPE

  辦公用品、辦公設備系列

  物流設備倉儲設備物料搬運設備

  靜電控制、環境監測及清潔、無塵室用品

  手動工具、動工具、氣動工具、電子工具、焊接工具、管道工具

  安全鎖具、安全標識、道路交通、工業膠帶、安防、消防

  數控刀具、夾具、工業輔料產品

  園林工具、園林機械、園藝工具

參考文獻

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