美國聯邦存款保險公司

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美国联邦存款保险公司(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,FDIC)
美國聯邦存款保險公司(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,FDIC)

美國聯邦存款保險公司網站網址http://www.fdic.gov

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美國聯邦存款保險公司簡介

    美國聯邦存款保險公司(FDIC)當地時間二十五日晚宣佈了美國曆史上最大的銀行倒閉案,總部位於華盛頓州的華盛頓互惠銀行資不抵債立即停業,由摩根大通以十九億美元的超低價收購這家有一百一十九年曆史、曾經擁有三千億美元資產和一千八百八十億美元存款的銀行的部分業務和分支機構。鑒於華盛頓互惠銀行(Washington Mutual)“流動性不足,無法滿足公司債務的支付要求,因而該行不能安全、穩定地進行業務”,美國儲蓄機構監理局(OTS)當地時間二十五日晚勒令華盛頓互惠銀行停業。這是自一九八四年伊利諾伊州大陸國民銀行倒閉以來,美國曆史上最大的銀行倒閉案。據美國聯邦存款保險公司(FDIC)二十五日晚間發表的一份聲明稱,由摩根大通以十九億美元的成本收購華盛頓互助銀行的存款業務、分支機構以及其他業務。儘管華盛頓互惠銀行旗下的數千億資產瞬間蒸發,但這筆收購對華盛頓互助銀行現有的儲蓄客戶以及其他客戶都不會造成任何影響,華盛頓互惠銀行周五將照常營業。 [1]

  聯邦存款保險公司(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,FDIC)是由美國國會在1930年大蕭條時期大量銀行被擠兌後創立的。截至2007年底,它已擁有524億美元的國家儲蓄保險基金。

  為恢復存款人對銀行系統的信任,美國在大危機後的1934年,根據《1933年銀行法》建立了聯邦存款保險公司。聯邦存款保險公司由理事會負責管理,理事會成員內5人組成,其成員包括貨幣監理署總監、儲蓄管理辦公室主任以及總統任命的其他3名理事(含理事會主席)。

  美國法律要求國民銀行、聯邦儲備體系會員銀行必須參加存款保險,不是聯邦儲備體系成員的州立銀行和其他金融機構可自願參加保險。目前,新成立的銀行都必須投保。實際上,美國幾乎所有的銀行都參加了保險。聯邦存款保險公司對每個賬戶的保險金額最高為10萬美元。

美国联邦存款保险公司徽章
放大
美國聯邦存款保險公司徽章

  聯邦存款保險公司的資本來源於向投保銀行收取的保險費。1999年以前保費按固定比例收取,現改按差別比例收取。收取比例確定的依據是,先按資本充足情況將投保銀行分為上、中、下三組,再按監管情況分為A、B、C三組,然後分別確定不同檔次的保費收取比例。保費收取比例最高為27/10000;最低為 0。同時法律授權聯邦存款保險公司在緊急情況下,有權向美國財政部借款300億美元。

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance which guarantees the safety of checking and savings deposits in member banks, currently up to $100,000 per depositor per bank. The vast number of bank failures in the Great Depression spurred the United States Congress to create an institution to guarantee deposits held by commercial banks, inspired by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and its Depositors Insurance Fund (DIF).

The FDIC insures accounts at different banks separately. For example, a person with accounts at two separate banks (not merely branches of the same bank) can keep $100,000 in each account and be insured for the total of $200,000. Also, accounts in different ownerships (such as beneficial ownership, trusts, and joint accounts) are considered separately for the $100,000 insurance limit. The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 raised the amount of insurance for an Individual Retirement Account to $250,000.

History

Inception

The 19th century economy of the United States was characterized by occasional bank panics, with corresponding economic downturns and unemployment. After the particularly severe Panic of 1893, legislators sought to arrange better security for bank deposits. William Jennings Bryan, for example, proposed a national bank guarantee fund for use during bank runs. Although deposit security measures were adopted at the state level, the federal government chose a "lender of last resort" approach in the form of the Federal Reserve System.

世界知名保險公司
美國
美國聯邦存款保險公司
美國國際集團
慕尼黑再保險公司
美國紐約人壽保險公司
美國聖保羅旅行者保險公司
美國利寶相互保險公司
美國教師退休基金會
美國麻省人壽保險公司
美國西北相互人壽保險公司
美國丘博保險集團
美國伯克希爾哈撒韋公司
美國安泰保險金融集團
美國哈特福德金融服務公司
美國前進保險公司
美國家庭人壽保險公司
美國全國保險公司
美國洛斯保險公司
美國信安金融集團
州立農業保險公司
好事達保險公司
大都會人壽保險公司
信諾集團
FM全球公司
日本
日本生命保險公司
日本第一生命保險公司
日本明治安田生命保險公司
日本住友生命保險公司
日本三井住友保險公司
日本財產保險公司
德國
德國安聯集團
法國
法國安盛集團
法國國家人壽保險公司
法國安盟-甘集團
荷蘭
荷蘭國際集團
荷蘭全球保險集團
西班牙
西班牙曼弗雷集團
加拿大
加拿大鮑爾集團
加拿大永明金融集團
加拿大巨集利金融集團
瑞士
瑞士再保險公司
瑞士人壽保險公司
蘇黎世金融服務集團
瑞典
斯堪的亞公共保險有限公司
義大利
義大利忠利集團
英國
英國英傑華集團
英國保誠集團
英國法通保險公司
英國標準人壽保險公司
英國耆衛保險公司
英國友誠保險公司
中國
中國人壽保險股份有限公司
中國平安保險集團
中國太平洋保險集團
中國太平保險集團
中國人壽保險(集團)公司
中國再保險(集團)股份有限公司
中國人民財產保險股份有限公司
中華聯合保險控股股份有限公司
天平汽車保險股份有限公司
中國人民保險公司
平安人壽保險公司
新華人壽保險公司
泰康人壽保險公司
中意人壽保險公司
[編輯]


This system failed to prevent an early bank panic in 1933, at the end of Herbert Hoover's term as president. The panic saw 4,004 banks closed, with an average of $900,000 in deposits. Under the federal government's supervision, these banks were merged into stronger banks. Many months later, depositors received compensation for roughly 85% of their former deposits.[citation needed] Incoming President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a former banker himself, did not like the insurance approach, but he agreed to it to restore confidence in the banking system.[citation needed]

In May 1933, the U.S. House Banking and Currency Committee submitted a bill that would insure deposits 100 percent to $10,000, and after that on a sliding scale; it would be financed by a small assessment on the banks. However the U.S. Senate Banking Committee reported a bill that excluded banks that were not members of the Federal Reserve System. Senator Arthur Vandenberg rejected both bills because neither contained a ceiling on the guarantees. He proposed an amendment covering all banks, beginning by using a temporary fund and a $2,500 ceiling. It was passed as the Glass-Steagall Deposit Insurance Act in June 1933 with Steagall's amendment that the program would be managed by the new Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The bill was not supported by banks: Francis Sisson, then-president of the American Bankers Association, said that concept of banks paying into a fund that would insure individual banks against losses was "unsound, unscientific, unjust, and dangerous."[2]

Led by Chicago banker Walter J. Cummings, Sr., the FDIC soon included almost all the country's 19,000 banking offices. Insurance started January 1, 1934. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was personally opposed to insurance because he thought it would protect irresponsible bankers, but yielded when he saw Congressional support was overwhelming.[citation needed] In early 1934, Roosevelt appointed Leo Crowley, a Wisconsin banker, as the second head of FDIC. Crowley, Roosevelt soon learned, did not have an unblemished record as a banker in Wisconsin. After some anguish, Roosevelt kept Crowley on and ignored his detractors. The outstanding public service of Leo Crowley was not generally known until 1996.[3]

S&L and bank crisis of the 1980s

Federal deposit insurance received its first large-scale test in the late 1980s and early 1990s during the savings and loan crisis (which also affected commercial banks).

The brunt of the crisis fell upon a parallel institution, the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC), created to insure savings and loan institutions (S&Ls, also called thrifts). Due to a confluence of events, much of the S&L industry was insolvent, and many large banks were in trouble as well. The FSLIC became insolvent and merged into the FDIC. Thrifts are now overseen by the Office of Thrift Supervision, an agency that works closely with the FDIC and the Comptroller of the Currency. (Credit unions are insured by the National Credit Union Administration.) The primary legislative responses to the crisis were the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA).

This crisis cost taxpayers an estimated $150 billion to resolve.

FDIC funds

Former Funds

There were two separate FDIC funds; one was the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF), and the other was the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF). The latter was established after the savings & loans crisis of the 1980s. The existence of two separate funds for the same purpose led to banks attempting to shift from one fund to another, depending on the benefits each could provide. In the 1990s, SAIF premiums were at one point five times higher than BIF premiums; several banks attempted to qualify for the BIF, with some merging with institutions qualified for the BIF to avoid the higher premiums of the SAIF. This drove up the BIF premiums as well, resulting in a situation where both funds were charging higher premiums than necessary.[4]

Then Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan was a critic of the system, saying that "We are, in effect, attempting to use government to enforce two different prices for the same item – namely, government-mandated deposit insurance. Such price differences only create efforts by market participants to arbitrage the difference." Greenspan proposed "to end this game and merge SAIF and BIF".[5]

Deposit Insurance Fund

In February, 2006, President George W. Bush signed The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 (the Reform Act) into law. The FDIRA contains technical and conforming changes to implement deposit insurance reform, as well as a number of study and survey requirements. Among the highlights of this law was merging the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF) and the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF) into a new fund, the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF). This change was made effective March 31, 2006. The FDIC maintains the DIF by assessing depository institutions an insurance premium. The amount each institution is assessed is based both on the balance of insured deposits as well as on the degree of risk the institution poses to the insurance fund.

At the end of 2007, the DIF had a balance of $52 billion[6]. Bank failures typically represent a cost to the DIF because FDIC, as receiver of the failed institution, must liquidate assets that have declined substantially in value while at the same time making good on the institution's deposit obligations. In July 2008, IndyMac Bank failed and was placed into receivership. The failure was initially projected by the FDIC to cost the DIF between $4 billion and $8 billion[7], but shortly thereafter the FDIC revised its estimate upward to $8.9 billion. Due to the failures of IndyMac and other banks, the DIF fell in the second quarter of 2008 to $45.2 billion.[8]. The decline in the insurance fund's balance[9] caused the reserve ratio (fund's balance divided by the insured deposits) to fall to 1.01 percent as at 30 June 2008, down from 1.19 percent in the prior quarter. Once the ratio falls below below 1.15 percent, FDIC is required to develop a restoration plan to replenish the fund, which is expected to involve requiring higher contributions from banks which deal in riskier activities.[10]

參考文獻

  1. http://news.qq.com/a/20080927/000041.htm 華盛頓互惠銀行停業 成美最大銀行倒閉案
  2. Daniel Gross, "Bair Market: The FDIC chairwoman's great ideas for preventing the meltdown of America's banking industry", Slate magazine, July 18, 2008
  3. Stuart L. Weiss; The President's Man: Leo Crowley and Franklin Roosevelt in Peace and War;; Southern Illinois University Press, 1996
  4. Sicilia, David B. & Cruikshank, Jeffrey L. (2000). The Greenspan Effect, pp. 96–97. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-134919-7.
  5. Sicilia & Cruikshank, pp. 97–98.
  6. FDIC: Press Releases - PR-15-2008 2/26/2008
  7. FDIC: Press Releases - PR-56-2008 7/11/2008
  8. Wutkowski, Karey (26 August 2008). "FDIC says IndyMac failure costlier than expected", Reuters Business & Finance, Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-08-28.
  9. Failed Bank List" (HTML). Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-08-28.
  10. Wutkowski, Karey (26 August 2008). "FDIC says IndyMac failure costlier than expected", Reuters Business & Finance, Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-08-28.
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110.7.113.* 在 2012年3月18日 22:03 發表

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110.7.118.* 在 2012年3月22日 16:24 發表

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