奧利弗·哈特

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(重定向自奥利佛·哈特)
奥利弗·哈特(Oliver Hart)
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奧利弗·哈特(Oliver Hart)
奧利弗·哈特(Oliver Hart,1948-)2016年諾貝爾經濟學獎獲得者、哈佛大學經濟系主任、經濟學教授、不完全合約理論的開創者,

目錄

人物簡介

  奧利弗·哈特(Oliver Simon D'Arcy Hart)哈佛大學Andrew E. Furer經濟學教授,美國經濟學家,經濟計量學會、美國人文與科學院院士,英國科學院院士,不完全合約理論的開創者之一。他至今仍是該領域的領軍人物之一。

  他是美國計量經濟學會會員、美國文理科學院院士,以及英國國家學術院會員。他還擔任美國法律和經濟學協會會長,美國經濟學會副會長,並擁有多個榮譽學位。

人物生平

  哈特在英國出生,1969年獲劍橋大學國王學院數學學士學位,1972年於華威大學獲經濟學碩士學位。

  1974年獲得普林斯頓大學經濟學博士學位。後成為倫敦經濟學院的教授以及劍橋丘吉爾學院研究員。

  1984年,他回到美國,在那裡他曾任教於麻省理工學院,1993年以來任教於哈佛大學。2000年到2003年任哈佛大學經濟學系主任。

  哈特教授自2006年起,出任上海交通大學高級學術顧問。

  2016年,哈特憑藉“在契約理論方面的貢獻”與芬蘭經濟學家本特·霍姆斯特羅姆共同獲得當年的諾貝爾經濟學獎

研究方向與著作

  奧利弗·哈特研究領域涉及微觀經濟理論、數理經濟學企業理論組織、合約理論、企業財務結構、法學與經濟學。哈特在企業理論上作出過突出貢獻,他與格羅斯曼(Hart&Grossman1986)以及與穆爾的論文(Hart&Moore,1990)奠定了當代企業理論的基礎,併為企業理論確立了一個基於合約理論的分析框架。他的《企業、合約與財務結構》(1995)已是企業理論的經典教科書。此外,哈特是不完全合約理論的開創者之一,他至今仍是該領域的領軍人物之一。

  他關註契約理論、企業理論、公司金融法律經濟學等研究領域,是合同理論、現代廠商理論和公司財務理論的創立者之一。專著《企業、合同與財務結構》是其代表作,書中他進一步發展了產權理論,提出了“不完全合同”理論。他認為,合同雙方不可能完全明晰所有可能情況中的權利與義務,這會影響到權利和控制的配置。他認為,企業財務合同與結構安排只有在這種理論下才能最合理的分析,財務工具可視為產權安排的工具。這個理論與舊產權理論有著重要不同,也引發了很大爭議。

Oliver Hart

  Harvard economist and Barcelona GSE Scientific Council member Oliver Hart visited the Ciutadella campus of the School on May 22 to speak on "Hold-up, Asset Ownership, and Reference Points".

  The lecture was part of the Microeconomics and Finance seminar series organized by the UPF Department of Economics and Business, one of the Barcelona GSE's founding academic institutions. On May 21st the seminar series also hosted Johns Hopkins University and University of Oxford Professor Peyton Young, who spoke about "Innovation Diffusion in Heterogeneous Populations".

  As a member of the Barcelona GSE's Scientific Council, Professor Hart joins a team of 30 leading academics who collaborate to ensure that the School offers the highest caliber of teaching and research. The Scientific Council is chaired by Professor Hugo Sonnenschein, former President of the University of Chicago, and includes ten Nobel Economics Laureates.

  Professor Hart received a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University (1974), an MSc in economics from Warwick University (1972) and a BA in mathematics from Cambridge University (1969). He has been the first Andrew Furer Professor of Economics at Harvard since 1997, where he served as Chair of the Economics Department from 2000-2003. He has also been Centennial Visiting Professor at London School of Economics since 1997. Previously, he has held academic positions at MIT, Wharton, Cambridge, and Essex University.

  In addition to his academic accolades, Professor Hart boasts a long list of professional accomplishments. He is current President of the American Law and Economics Association and Senior Academic Advisor to the Shanghai Jiao Tong University. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and has been granted honorary doctorates from the Free University of Brussels and the University of Basel. He has delivered major lectures at universities and conferences around the world, including the 1988 Fisher-Schultze Lecture of the Econometric Society.

  Professor Hart has served on the Executive Committee and on the Council of the Econometric Society, the American Law and Economics Association, and many others. He has been on the editorial boards of the Journal of Economic Perspectives, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Journal of Accounting, Auditing, and Finance, Games and Economic Behavior, Econometrica, Review of Economic Studies, and the Journal of Economic Theory.

  His main areas of research are theory of the firm, economics theory, and law and economics. He is the author of the book Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure published by Oxford University Press, and has written numerous articles published in the leading scientific journals, as well as in The Wall Street Journal and the Financial Times.

Biography

  Born in Britain, he earned his B.A. in mathematics at King's College, Cambridge in 1969, his M.A. in economics at University of Warwick in 1972, and his Ph.D. in economics at Princeton University in 1974. He then became a fellow at Churchill College, Cambridge and a professor at the London School of Economics. In 1984, he returned to the U.S., where he taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, since 1993, at Harvard University. He was chairman of the Harvard economics department from 2000 to 2003. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Econometric Society, and a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. He has been President of the American Law and Economics Association and Vice-President of the American Economic Association, and has several honorary degrees.

  He is an American citizen. He is married to writer Rita B. Goldberg and has two sons and a grandson. He is the son of Philip D'Arcy Hart.

Academics

  He is an expert on contract theory, theory of the firm, corporate finance, and law and economics. His research centers on the roles that ownership structure and contractual arrangements play in the governance and boundaries of corporations.

  • Books
    • Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure (Oxford University Press, 1995).
  • Selected Articles
    • "On the Optimality of Equilibrium when the Market Structure is Incomplete",Journal of Economic Theory, December 1975,418-443
    • "Takeover Bids, the Free-rider problem, and the Theory of the Corporation" (with Sanford J. Grossman), Bell Journal of Economics, Spring 1980,42-64
    • "An Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem" (with Sanford J. Grossman), Econometrica (January 1983) 7-46.
    • "The Market Mechanism as an Incentive Scheme," Bell Journal of Economics, 14 (Autumn 1983) 366-82.
    • "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration" (with Sanford J. Grossman), Journal of Political Economy, August 1986,691-719.
    • "One Share-One vote and the Market for Corporate Control" (with Sanford J. Grossman), Journal of Financial Economics, 1988
    • "Incomplete Contracts and Renegotiation" (with John Hardman Moore), Econometrica 56(4) (July 1988).
    • "Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm" (with John Hardman Moore), Journal of Political Economy 98(6) (1990).
    • " A Theory of Debt Based on the Inalienability of Human Capital " with John Hardman Moore, Quarterly Journal of Economics, November 1994,841-879
    • "The Proper Scope of Government: Theory and an Application to Prisons" (with Andrei Shleifer and Robert W. Vishny), Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(4) (1997) 1126-61.
    • "Contracts as Reference Points" ( with John Hardman Moore), Quarterly Journal of Economics, February, 2008,1-48.
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