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威廉·杰克·鲍莫尔 (William Jack Baumol)
威廉·傑克·鮑莫爾 (William Jack Baumol)
威廉·傑克·鮑莫爾 (William Jack Baumol)



  威廉·傑克·鮑莫爾(William Jack Baumol,1922年2月26日-),美國經濟學家普林斯頓大學榮譽退休高級研究員和經濟學教授,紐約大學經濟學教授。鮑莫爾是30多本書的作者、合著者和編輯,這些書被翻譯成10多種文字。鮑莫爾還為美國一些最知名的企業做過咨詢。他的個人著作包括《微觀經濟學》、《超公平主義》、《企業家精神》、《管理學》以及《支付結構》;在他和別人合編的著作中,包括《生產力和美國的領先地位》。


  在80歲高齡的時候,鮑莫爾出版了《資本主義的增長奇跡——自由市場創新機器》一書,將其持續了三四十年的創新研究進行了系統總結。這本書分為三個部分:第一部分論證寡頭壟斷自由市場,創新將不可避免。經濟增長將自動得到保證,顯然這是約瑟夫·熊彼特(Joseph Alois Schumpeter)當年提出來的命題;第二部分對微觀經濟學理論的一些工具進行了改造,來適應處理創新問題的需要;第三部分用長期巨集觀經濟學方式研究歷史上的增長。中心思想很清楚:增長的發動機最終依賴於制度規則,自由市場的資本主義或許不是最優的技術進步體制,但和其他的經濟制度比,卻是最不壞的制度。



  • Born February 26, 1922, New York, NY
  • Married, two children
  • BSS College of the City of New York, 1942
  • 1942-1943 and 1946: Junior Economist, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
  • 1992-current: Senior Research Economist and Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Princeton University
  • 1971-current: Professor of Economics and Director, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University


  He was initially denied entry to the doctoral studies at the London School of Economics and was instead admitted to the Master's program. After witnessing his debating skills at Lord Lionel Robbins' seminars, he was within weeks switched to the doctoral program and also admitted to the faculty as an Assistant Lecturer. His Ph.D. oral exam lasted five hours.

  While a professor at Princeton University, some of his graduate students would eventually become very well-known economists, including Gary Becker, Burton Malkiel, William Bowen, and Harold Tafler Shapiro.


  Among his better-known contributions are the theory of contestable markets, the Baumol-Tobin model of transactions demand for money, Baumol's cost disease, which discusses the rising costs associated with service industries, Baumol’s sales revenue maximization model[7] and Pigou taxes.[8][9] His research on environmental economics recognized the fundamental role of non-convexities in causing market failures.

  William Baumol was also a major contributor to the transformation of the field of finance, and published contributions to the areas of efficiency of capital markets, portfolio theory, and capital budgeting.


  The place of the disharmony-creating and idiosyncratic entrepreneur in traditional economic theory (which describes many efficiency-based ratios assuming uniform outputs) presents theoretic quandaries. William Baumol has added greatly to this area of economic theory. The 2006 Annual Meetings of the American Economic Association held a special session in his name, and honoring his many years of work in the field of entrepreneurship and innovation, where 12 papers on entrepreneurship were presented.

  The Baumol Research Centre for Entrepreneurship Studies at Zhejiang Gongshang University is named after William Baumol.

  In 2003, Baumol received the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research "[f]or his persistent effort to give the entrepreneur a key role in mainstream economic theory, for his theoretical and empirical studies of the nature of entrepreneurship, and for his analysis of the importance of institutions and incentives for the allocation of entrepreneurship."

  The British magazine, The Economist published an article about William Baumol and his lifelong work to develop a place in economic theory for the entrepreneur (March 11, 2006, pp 68), much of which owes its genesis to Joseph Schumpeter. They note that traditional microeconomic theory holds a place for 'prices' and 'firms' but not for that (seemingly) important engine of innovation, the entrepreneur. Baumol is given credit for helping to remedy this shortcoming: "Thanks to Mr. Baumol's own painstaking efforts, economists now have a bit more room for entrepreneurs in their theories."

  William Baumol's book, "The Microtheory of Innovative Entrepreneurship" is the first formal theoretical analysis of the role of innovative entrepreneurs.


  • 1960-70 Trustee, Rider College
  • 1965 Honorary LL.D, Rider College (Trustee Emeritus)
  • 1965-66 Ford Faculty Fellowship
  • 1970 Honorary Fellow, London School of Economics
  • 1971 Honorary Doctorate, Stockholm School of Economics
  • 1973 Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, Knox College
  • 1975 Townsend Harris Medal, Alumni Association of the City College of New York
  • 1984 Distinguished Member, Economic Association of Puerto Rico
  • 1986 Winner, Assoc. of American Publishers Award for Best Book in Business, Management and Economics, Superfairness: Applications and Theory
  • 1987 Recipient, Frank E. Seidman Distinguished Award in Political Economy
  • 1988 Joseph Douglas Green 1895 Professor of Economics, Princeton University
  • 1989 Winner, Assoc. of Am. Publishers Annual Awards for Excellence in Publishing, Honorable Mention in Social Sciences, Productivity and American Leadership: The Long View
  • 1992 Recipient, First Senior Scholar in the Arts and Sciences Award, New York University
  • 1996 Honorary Degree, University of Limburg, Maastricht, Holland
  • 1996 Honorary Professorship, University of Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Argentina


  • Member, American Philosophical Society
  • Member, Advisory Board, Insurance Information Institute Press
  • Chairman, Overseers' Committee to Visit the Dept. of Economics, Harvard University
  • Member, Advisory Board, Journal of Economic Perspectives
  • Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Cultural Economics
  • Principal Investigator, Students at Risk Comm., Inst. for Education & Social Policy
  • Member, Advisory Committee, World Resources Institute (founding member)
  • Member, Editorial Advisory Board, Supreme Court Economic Review
  • Member, Board of Trustees, Joint Council on Economic Education
  • Member, Advisory Committee, Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Graduate School of Business Administration, New York University
  • Member, National Science Foundation review panel for Science and Technology Research Centers
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences
  • Correspondent, Committee on Human Rights, National Academy of Sciences
  • Member, Committee on the National Institute for the Environment, National Academy of Sciences
  • Member, Board of Consultants, Economia, Revista Quadrimestral (Portugal)
  • Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • Member, Executive Committee, V.P. (1966-67), American Economic Association
  • Past President, American Economic Association (1981), Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (1979), Eastern Economic Association (1978-79), Atlantic Economic Society (1985)
  • Past Chairman and Member, Economic Policy Council, State of New Jersey (1967-75)
  • Past Vice President, American Association of University Professors
  • Past Vice President, AAUP (1968-70) and Chairman, Committee on Economic Status of the Profession (1962-70)
  • Various times on Boards of Editors for American Economic Review, Kyklos, Journal of Economic Literature, Management Science, Economic Notes (Italy), Journal of Economic Education, Impresa e Concorrenza (Italy) THESIS: Theory and History of Economic and Social Institutions and Structures (USSR)
  • Director, Consultants in Industry Economics, Inc.
  • Frequent consultant to government and industry, in U.S. and many other countries.


  • Economic Dynamics (with R. Turvey), 1951, 1959, 1970
  • Economic Processes and Policies (with L.V. Chandler), 1954
  • Business Behavior, Value and Growth, 1959, 1966
  • Economic Theory and Operations Analysis, 1961, 1965, 1972, 1976
  • Performing Arts: The Economic Dilemma (with W.G. Bowen), 1966
  • Economics of Academic Libraries (with M. Marcus), 1973
  • The Theory of Environmental Policy (with W.E. Oates), 1975, 1988
  • Selected Economic Writings of William J. Baumol, E.E. Bailey, ed., 1976
  • Economics, Environmental Policy, and the Quality of Life (with W.E. Oates and S.A. Batey Blackman), 1979
  • Economics: Principles and Policy (with A.S. Blinder), 1979, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1991 and 1994
  • Public and Private Enterprise in a Mixed Economy (editor), 1980.
  • Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry Structure (with R.D. Willig and J.C. Panzar), 1982, 1987
  • Inflation and the Performing Arts (editor with H. Baumol), 1984
  • Productivity Growth and U.S. Competitiveness (editor with K. McLennan), 1985
  • Superfairness: Applications and Theory, 1986
  • Microtheory: Applications and Origins, 1986
  • The Information Economy and the Implications of Unbalanced Growth (with L. Osberg and E.N. Wolff), 1989
  • Productivity and American Leadership: The Long View (with S.A. Batey Blackman and E.N. Wolff), 1989
  • The Economics of Mutual Fund Markets: Competition vs. Regulation (with S.M. Goldfeld, L.A. Gordon and M.F. Koehn), 1990
  • Perfect Markets and Easy Virtue: Business Ethics and the Invisible Hand (with S.A. Batey Blackman), 1991
  • Entrepreneurship, Management and the Structure of Payoffs, 1993
  • Toward Competition in Local Telephony (with Gregory Sidak), 1994
  • Convergence of Productivity: Cross-National Studies and Historical Evidence (ed. with R.R. Nelson & E.N. Wolff), 1994
  • Transmission Pricing and Stranded Costs in the Electric Power Industry (with Gregory Sidak), 1995
  • Assessing Educational Practices: The Contribution of Economics (ed. with W.E. Becker), 1995
  • Plus some 400 articles published in professional journals.












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