艾利·高德拉特

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高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt)
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高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt)

高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt):“約束理論”的創造者

目錄

高德拉特簡介

  艾利·高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt,1947年3月31日-2011年6月11日),是以色列物理學家、企業管理大師,“TOC制約法”的創造者。他的第一部作品《目標》大膽借用小說的筆法,說明如何通過近乎常識的邏輯推理,解決複雜的管理問題,結果一炮走紅。

  高德拉特20歲時就立志要教導別人思考的方法,他對於傳播觀念抱有極大的狂熱,可以一天只睡3個小時,奔波於世界各地發表演說。他還創立了“高德拉特機構”,併在全球廣設分部,以此來訓練TOC人才,推廣“TOC制約法”,輔導對象包括通用汽車波音飛機在內的諸多知名企業,以及包括教師、美國空軍將領在內的各行業知名人士。

  繼《目標》之後,高德拉特相繼出版了《絕不是靠運氣》、《關鍵鏈》和《仍然不足夠》三本企業管理小說以及數本“TOC制約法”理論專著,在全球各地引起了強烈反響。

  《醒悟》是高德拉特博士在2011年6月11日逝世前出版的最後一本企管小說。

Work

After some experience helping Israeli manufacturers, Goldratt left the academic world to join a company called Creative Output. The company developed and sold a software package, the Optimized Production Technology (OPT). OPT was billed as the first software to provide finite capacity scheduling for production environments. This software and the principles behind it were analyzed by a number of major publications[1].

Goldratt was actively involved in many controversies such as Cost Accounting x Throughput Accounting[2] and culminated in the publication of A Town Without Walls[3].

Within the company Goldratt noticed elements that made him uncomfortable[4] several software implementations did not come close to their estimated potential. After some work Goldratt discovered that the habits, and assumptions (paradigms) of employees and managers prior to using the software were still prominent and negatively influenced results after implementation[4].

His answer was the book The Goal that took 13 months to write. After completion the book was not well received by the company staff and by large publishers[4]. Finally, with help from Larry Gadd the owner of North River Press, the book was published and became a great success[5]. After a while Goldratt noticed that many implementations were conducted using the Book but not the software. This caused further stress in the company and Goldratt tried to capture the essence of how to implement the solution directly in what is now known as Drum-Buffer-Rope method. He published The Race to explain some of the concepts he was working on, and developed a course to teach people how to manage their production using a computer simulation game.

Goldratt tried to move the company down the path of "consulting", trying to help people rethink the way they did things, but Creative Output's declining revenues and Goldratt involvement with anything but the sales of OPT software convinced the shareholders to fire Goldratt (and afterward his closer collaborators).


After leaving Creative Output circa 1985 Goldratt created the Avraham Y Goldratt Institute or AGI (named after his father) to promote the Theory of Constraints and help it be implemented worldwide.

During the time of the AGI Goldratt got deeply involved with the further development of TOC, mainly the Thinking Processes (and launched it publicly in 1991), Critical Chain Project Management and other applications. His concepts influenced applications outside manufacturing and supply management, including the field of sales process engineering[6].

The AGI had many success stories[7]. In 1997, Goldratt followed his plan to retire from the Institute prior to his 50th birthday.


From the beginning of the 2000s Goldratt created the self-funded Goldratt Group and launched the Viable Vision initiative.

He continues the development of TOC both in the Goldratt Group and in active support for other developments like TOC for Education[8], TOC in Healthcare, TOC for the Individual (in the continuity of the Odyssey program and the publishing of The Choice).

高德拉特的4部管理著作

  《目標》

  反映了一位科學家對管理問題的種種思考。高德拉特原本設計了一套昂貴的軟體來幫助企業提高經營績效,並寫了《目標》這本書來解釋他獨創的“制約法”(TheoryOfConstraints,TOC),但是起初根本得不到出版商的青睞,他們質疑:“由物理學家寫的企業管理小說?把科學方法應用在企業管理上?沒有人會讀這樣的一本書的。”

  高德拉特不氣餒,利用各種機會自己推廣這本書,不久信件就如雪片般飛來,一位企業主管在信上告訴他:“這正是我一直在尋找的書!我規定所有員工在讀完這本書後,才準休假,這本書讓我們公司脫胎換骨!”高德拉特把這封信連同全部書稿,寄給北河出版社,一本暢銷書就這樣誕生了,連品質管理大師戴明博士讀了以後,都大力贊揚。

  《絕不是靠運氣》

  《目標》是以生產管理為主線,《絕不是靠運氣》以分銷管理及如何破解衝突等問題為主線。也是具體介紹TOC的其中一個極重要組成部分———“TOC思維方法”,這關乎企業要解決的3個甚為重要的問題,那就是:要改善些什麼?要改善成什麼樣子?怎樣才能有效的、一步一步地執行這些改善?“TOC思維方法”很強調管理人員必須懂得很快、很準確地抓住每日面對的眾多難題背後的共同根源,千萬不要“救火式”地、“見招拆招”式地處理問題。因為縱使今天的火被撲滅,明天它必然會再燃。沒有抓住問題背後的根源,只可能日日疲於奔命。

  《關鍵鏈》

  主要談管理項目,高德拉特博士的結論是:一定要尋求突破。這本書依舊以小說的形式寫成,故事的主要人物是來自各行各業的管理人員。鑒於現行的項目管理和知識不足,以應付他們日常工作所需,這群人不約而同參加一個在職工商管理碩士課程,希望得到答案。在導師帶領下,他們一步一步分析項目管理問題的源頭,然後一起尋找解決方案。同樣是蘇格拉底式的探索問題,並提出挑戰性的新理念。

  《仍然不足夠》

  “不足夠”,是指什麼呢?是指科技,尤其是信息技術。意思就是,要管理好一個企業,信息技術是必須的工具,但光靠它來達到企業業績的顯著改善,還是遠遠不夠的。

  那麼,還欠缺什麼呢?這本書就是為瞭解答這個問題。這本小說圍繞一家ERP供應商的經歷而寫成,對信息技術行業,尤其是ERP行業,以及已安裝或正考慮安裝ERP的企業,會有很大的啟發。這個行業競爭激烈,供應商客戶關係的甜酸苦辣、驚濤駭浪,是很多人都經歷過的。

  作者在最後幾章多次提及TOC專家在ERP實施中發揮的作用,主張企業管理階層、ERP專家以及TOC專家三位一體,協同操作,才是ERP實施之道,才能令新科技快速為企業帶來巨大的利潤

  小說也點出了世界各地都面對的一大難題,也就是TOC專家嚴重短缺,人才難求。作者說,以小說形式寫一本技術性的書是有風險的。技術性小說犯了什麼小錯,或者什麼解釋不夠清晰,就會異常礙眼。因此,技術性小說必須將所有資訊極清晰地帶出。

高德拉特的主要著作

  • 《目標》
  • 《絕不是靠運氣》
  • 《仍然不足夠》
  • 《關鍵鏈》
  • Late Night Discussions on the Theory of Constraints. (1998) ISBN 0-88427-160-9
  • The Race. (with Robert E. Fox.)(1986) ISBN 0-88427-062-9
  • Essays on the Theory of Constraints. (1987) ISBN 0-88427-159-5
  • What is this Thing Called Theory of Constraints. (1990) ISBN 0-88427-166-8
  • The Haystack Syndrome: Sifting Information Out of the Data Ocean. (1991) ISBN 0-88427-184-6
  • Production the TOC Way (Revised Edition). (2003) ISBN 0-88427-175-7
  • TOC - Self Learning Program. 8 Video Sessions: Operations; Finance and Measurements; Project Management; Distribution; Marketing; Sales and Buy-In; Strategy and tactics (2002)
  • TOC Insights. 4 Self learning computer software: Operations; Finance and Measurements; Project Management; Distribution (2003)
  • Beyond The Goal. Audiobook (2005) ISBN 1-59659-023-8

參考文獻

  1. G. Bylinsky. An Efficiency guru with a brown box. Fortune; 120.September 1983
  2. Goldratt, E. M.Cost accounting is enemy number one of productivity.International Conference Proceedings, American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS).October 1983
  3. Goldratt, Eliyahu M. & Plossl, George. Town Without Walls. Whitepaper, distributed during APICS 1984.International Conference in Las Vegas/USA
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Goldratt, Eliyahu M.My Saga to Improve Production. For instance, in the second edition of The Goal
  5. Laurence Gadd. Preface to The Choice
  6. Paul H. Selden.Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop.ASQ Quality Press. Milwaukee, WI.1997.pp33-35, 264-268
  7. AGI- Success Stories.October 25th, 2008
  8. TOC for Education site
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