諾斯古德·帕金森

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诺斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)
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諾斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)

西里爾·諾斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)

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西里爾·諾斯古德·帕金森簡介

  西里爾·諾斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)生於1909年,富有幽默感而又孤高自傲。英國曆史學博士,就學於劍橋倫敦大學,先後在皇家海軍學院,利物浦大學馬來亞大學執教,為英國皇家歷史學會會員。60年代移居美國,又在哈佛大學任課。1975年,他在馬亞西亞一個海濱度假時,悟出了一個定律,後來他將自己思考的結果發表在倫敦的《經濟學家》期刊上,一舉成名。《帕金森定律》一書出版以後,被翻譯成多國語言,在美國更是長踞暢銷書排行榜榜首。

Cyril Northcote Parkinson (July 30, 1909 - March 9, 1993) was a British historian and author of some sixty books. Besides his numerous works on British politics and economics, he also wrote historical fiction, often based on the Napoleonic period, and sea stories. He is most famous for his ridicule of bureaucratic institutions, notably his Parkinson's Law and Other Studies , a collection of short essays explaining the inevitability of bureaucratic expansion. As early as the 1930's, for example, Parkinson had successfully predicted that the Royal Navy would eventually have more admirals than ships.

帕金森第一次寫小說的嘗試,是以一位虛構的船長Horatio Hornblower為原型的一部“自傳”,該書取得了相當的好評,並被歸入到他之後的海洋冒險家Richard Delancey系列小說之中。

Parkinson's first fictional effort, a "biography" of fictional sea captain Horatio Hornblower, met with considerable acclaim and led to his series of books about seafaring adventurer Richard Delancey.

Biography: C. Northcote Parkinson

傳記:C.斯諾古德 帕金森

當英國曆史學家和諷刺小說作家C.斯諾古德 帕金森(1909-1993)在二戰期間作為一名英國軍隊軍官與1957年發表其評論(observations)“《帕金森定律》和其他隨筆”之後,他可能並不會意識到,這本書的基本命題“只要還有時間,工作就會不斷擴展,直到用完所有的時間。”會成為今天職場的一句真言。

When British historian and satirist C. Northcote Parkinson (1909 - 1993) published his observations from working as a British army staff officer during World War II in "Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays", in 1957, he might not have realized that its basic premise "work expands to fill the time available for its completion" would become a standard mantra describing modern business practices.

  C.諾斯古德 帕金森於1909年7月30日出生於英格蘭Durham郡的Barnard Castle。他的父親William Edward Parkinson是一名藝術家,他的母親叫Rosemary Parkinson。他從1916年至1929年先後在約克郡的St.Olave's和St.Peter's完成基礎教育,後進入劍橋大學的Emmanuel學院。

  帕金森在劍橋大學取得了文學學士的學位之後,進入倫敦大學的國王學院繼續深造,併在那裡與1935年取得了歷史學博士學位。

  之後,帕金森返回到Emmanuel學院,於1935年至1938年在那裡任教。繼他在一所位於Devon郡Tiverton的男子私立學校Blundell取得了高級歷史系主任的職位之後,他就離開了Emmanuel學院。

  1939年英國被卷入到二次大戰之中,帕金森加入到位於Dartmouth的皇家海軍學院。在他服役期間,他的主要工作是訓練英國軍官及皇家空軍官兵,就在這個時期“帕金森定律”產生了。

Cyril Northcote Parkinson was born on July 30, 1909, at Barnard Castle, Durham, England. His father, William Edward Parkinson, was an artist, and his mother was Rosemary (Curnow) Parkinson. He attended school at St. Olave's and St. Peter's schools in York, England, from 1916 until 1929, when he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Parkinson received his bachelor of arts degree from Cambridge and then went on to King's College, University of London, where he earned a Ph.D. in history in 1935. Parkinson returned to Emmanuel College as a fellow and taught from 1935 until 1938, then left for a position as senior history master at Blundell's, a private school for boys located in Tiverton, Devon. When Great Britain entered World War II in 1939, Parkinson enlisted in the Royal Navy College at Dartmouth, England. It was during his wartime service, working in training and administration for the British War Office and the Royal Air Force, that his inspiration for Parkinson's Law was born. During the war he attained the rank of major as a member of the Queen's Royal Regiment of the British Army.Law Inspired by Military Bureaucracy Law Inspired by Military Bureaucracy

In an obituary in the New York Times, at Parkinson's death in March 1993, Richard W. Stevenson recalled a comment Parkinson once made to the London Times regarding his tenure in the British military: "I observed, somewhat to my surprise, that work which could be done by one man in peacetime , was being given to about six in wartime." He added that he thought that "this was mainly because there wasn't the same opportunity for other people to criticize" such a lack of economic efficiency, adding that, in the event of such criticism, someone would likely retort : "Don't you know there's a war on?" In an obituary in the New York Times, at Parkinson's death in March 1993, Richard W. Stevenson recalled a comment Parkinson once made to the London Times regarding his tenure in the British military: "I observed, somewhat to my surprise, that work which could be done by one man in peacetime , was being given to about six in wartime." He added that he thought that "this was mainly because there wasn't the same opportunity for other people to criticize" such a lack of economic efficiency, adding that, in the event of such criticism, someone would likely retort : "Don't you know there's a war on?"

Following the war, Parkinson became a lecturer of naval history at the University of Liverpool, where he stayed until 1950. At that point he left for Singapore to become Raffles Professor of History at the University of Malaya. Parkinson stayed in Singapore until 1958 during which time he produced his now-famous essay, which was first published in the British magazine Economist in 1955, submitted by its author as an anonymous essay. When he left Singapore, Parkinson traveled to the University of Illinois at Urbana, where he served as Visiting George A. Miller Professor of History for two years. In 1960 he took on another visiting professorship, this one a year-long position at the University of California, Berkeley. While he was living in California, Parkinson had by now become noted for his creation of Parkinson's Law, and California Governor Ronald Reagan asked the British professor to lecture "on the precise reasons why the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge's original repainting crew of 14 members grew to 72 once a labor-saving paint sprayer had been introduced," recalled Francis X. Clines in his interview with of Parkinson for the New York Times. Following the war, Parkinson became a lecturer of naval history at the University of Liverpool, where he stayed until 1950. At that point he left for Singapore to become Raffles Professor of History at the University of Malaya. Parkinson stayed in Singapore until 1958 during which time he produced his now-famous essay, which was first published in the British magazine Economist in 1955, submitted by its author as an anonymous essay. When he left Singapore, Parkinson traveled to the University of Illinois at Urbana, where he served as Visiting George A. Miller Professor of History for two years. In 1960 he took on another visiting professorship, this one a year-long position at the University of California, Berkeley. While he was living in California, Parkinson had by now become noted for his creation of Parkinson's Law, and California Governor Ronald Reagan asked the British professor to lecture "on the precise reasons why the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge's original repainting crew of 14 members grew to 72 once a labor-saving paint sprayer had been introduced," recalled Francis X. Clines in his interview with of Parkinson for the New York Times.

Writing to Fill the Time Writing to Fill the Time

In addition to his career as a professor of history, Parkinson was a prolific writer and published a number of books prior to releasing Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, in 1959. His expertise in naval history translated into the bulk of that work, and he was highly regarded as one of the foremost naval historians in Great Britain and throughout the fading British Empire. Some of Parkinson's early writings included Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934), Trade in the Eastern Seas, 1793 - 1813 (1937), The Trade Winds (1948), The Rise of the Port of Liverpool (1952), A Short History of Malaya (1954), and Heroes of Malaya (1956), the last volume with his second wife, Elizabeth Parkinson. In addition to his career as a professor of history, Parkinson was a prolific writer and published a number of books prior to releasing Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, in 1959. His expertise in naval history translated into the bulk of that work, and he was highly regarded as one of the foremost naval historians in Great Britain and throughout the fading British Empire. Some of Parkinson's early writings included Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934), Trade in the Eastern Seas, 1793 - 1813 (1937), The Trade Winds (1948), The Rise of the Port of Liverpool (1952), A Short History of Malaya (1954), and Heroes of Malaya (1956), the last volume with his second wife, Elizabeth Parkinson.

The publication of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, by Houghton Mifflin in 1957 marked a somewhat new direction for the historian. That the book was initially displayed in bookstores in the "Law," "Humor," or "Politics" sections never ceased to delight its author, as well as baffle him. In addition to his Economist essay on bureaucratic inefficiency, Parkinson also includes writings on such topics as why driving on the left side of the road - as is the habit in Great Britain - is natural. In his interview with Clines, Parkinson offered a brief chronicle of what the publicity of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays did for his career - in essence imbuing the academic with celebrity status for life. Clines noted that the then-78-year-old Parkinson, by the time of his New York Times interview living at Onchan, on the Isle of Man, was attempting to retire from the spotlight and quipped that his role as an "authority" on business practices following the publication of Parkinson's Law was a continuing source of humor to him. The publication of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, by Houghton Mifflin in 1957 marked a somewhat new direction for the historian. That the book was initially displayed in bookstores in the "Law," "Humor," or "Politics" sections never ceased to delight its author, as well as baffle him. In addition to his Economist essay on bureaucratic inefficiency, Parkinson also includes writings on such topics as why driving on the left side of the road - as is the habit in Great Britain - is natural. In his interview with Clines, Parkinson offered a brief chronicle of what the publicity of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays did for his career - in essence imbuing the academic with celebrity status for life. Clines noted that the then-78-year-old Parkinson, by the time of his New York Times interview living at Onchan, on the Isle of Man, was attempting to retire from the spotlight and quipped that his role as an "authority" on business practices following the publication of Parkinson's Law was a continuing source of humor to him.

Parkinson also recalled his mentor and hero, GK Chesterton, who had given him advice when he was a young man. At the time of his meeting with the British writer, Parkinson was slowly building his new law during lecture invitations, and as he traveled and observed people and their motivations. He found direction in Chesterton's example as a "literate Englishman and practicing essayist " who was active in English letters for much of his life. Parkinson recalled to Clines: "I met Chesterton when I was a young man and he was old, and it was from him that I derived the whole idea of conveying serious thoughts in the form of a joke. The humor made the whole thing more digestible and gave it great publicity." Parkinson also recalled his mentor and hero, GK Chesterton, who had given him advice when he was a young man. At the time of his meeting with the British writer, Parkinson was slowly building his new law during lecture invitations, and as he traveled and observed people and their motivations. He found direction in Chesterton's example as a "literate Englishman and practicing essayist " who was active in English letters for much of his life. Parkinson recalled to Clines: "I met Chesterton when I was a young man and he was old, and it was from him that I derived the whole idea of conveying serious thoughts in the form of a joke. The humor made the whole thing more digestible and gave it great publicity."

Life after the "Law" Life after the "Law"

After formulating his primary "law," Parkinson continued to be inspired to formulate expansions on his central theme, among them Mrs. Parkinson's Laws, which addresses the issues of household management in a similar way to those Parkinson addressed in business. By the late 1980s he was developing a new law, which he revealed to Clines as follows: "The chief product of a highly automated society is a widespread and deepening sense of boredom ." As Clines explained, "Parkinson has been studying a new generation busy with glyphs and dreams at their work computers, a tool which he declines to pick up." Parkinson cited as "proof" of his new law the example of of one resident of the Isle of Man, an office worker who had "measured an average work week of 56 hours, but found [himself] … happier for having to typically do three jobs: farming, carpentry , plus some tourism labors." Parkinson suggested that two days of manual labor in addition to the ever-increasing computer workload was the best preventive for boredom. He suggested that people are happiest when they are doing some kind of physical work. After formulating his primary "law," Parkinson continued to be inspired to formulate expansions on his central theme, among them Mrs. Parkinson's Laws, which addresses the issues of household management in a similar way to those Parkinson addressed in business. By the late 1980s he was developing a new law, which he revealed to Clines as follows: "The chief product of a highly automated society is a widespread and deepening sense of boredom ." As Clines explained, "Parkinson has been studying a new generation busy with glyphs and dreams at their work computers, a tool which he declines to pick up." Parkinson cited as "proof" of his new law the example of of one resident of the Isle of Man, an office worker who had "measured an average work week of 56 hours, but found [himself] … happier for having to typically do three jobs: farming, carpentry , plus some tourism labors." Parkinson suggested that two days of manual labor in addition to the ever-increasing computer workload was the best preventive for boredom. He suggested that people are happiest when they are doing some kind of physical work.

Parkinson wrote over 60 books during his life, with the majority of those nonfiction . However, he also used his humor and his background in naval history to set the literary world on end again when he published his "Richard Delancey" seafaring mystery novels, telling the story of the quick-witted Delancey's adventures when he enters the disorderly world of the Royal Navy. Throughout the popular six-book series readers have the opportunity to travel with Delancey to the Mediterranean, the East Indies, the Netherlands, and beyond and follow his remarkable adventures. Parkinson wrote over 60 books during his life, with the majority of those nonfiction . However, he also used his humor and his background in naval history to set the literary world on end again when he published his "Richard Delancey" seafaring mystery novels, telling the story of the quick-witted Delancey's adventures when he enters the disorderly world of the Royal Navy. Throughout the popular six-book series readers have the opportunity to travel with Delancey to the Mediterranean, the East Indies, the Netherlands, and beyond and follow his remarkable adventures.

Fictional Seafarer Biographies Proved Popular Fictional Seafarer Biographies Proved Popular

Two of Parkinson's novels, both fictional "biographies," followed somewhat the same path after publication as did Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays. Both The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower and Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman were shelved in bookstores in the "Biography" or, in the case of the Hornblower "biography," the "History" section, when in fact they are works of fiction. Two of Parkinson's novels, both fictional "biographies," followed somewhat the same path after publication as did Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays. Both The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower and Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman were shelved in bookstores in the "Biography " or, in the case of the Hornblower "biography," the "History" section, when in fact they are works of fiction.

When Parkinson published The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower in 1970, he based the book on the fictional 19th-century naval hero created by author CS Forester. Forester based his Hornblower character on actual reports from a variety of naval officers of the period and made him so realistic that many readers believed him to be a real person - in fact, the British National Maritime Museum often encountered visitors looking for the "Hornblower Papers." Similarly, Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman is based on the fictional butler created by popular British humorist PG Wodehouse and who is featured in a series of Wodehouse's novels. When Parkinson published The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower in 1970, he based the book on the fictional 19th-century naval hero created by author CS Forester. Forester based his Hornblower character on actual reports from a variety of naval officers of the period and made him so realistic that many readers believed him to be a real person - in fact, the British National Maritime Museum often encountered visitors looking for the "Hornblower Papers." Similarly, Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman is based on the fictional butler created by popular British humorist PG Wodehouse and who is featured in a series of Wodehouse's novels.

Parkinson's other books included another work of nautical fiction, 1990's Manhunt. In the area of naval history, he also authored Samuel Waters, Lieut. RN (1949), Britannia Rules (1977), and Gunpowder, Treason, and Plot (1978). Others books by Parkinson, which ranged from cultural commentary to more overt satire, include The Evolution of Political Thought (1958), The Law and the Profits (1960), In-Law and Outlaws (1962), Left Luggage (1967), and The Law of Delay (1970). Parkinson's other books included another work of nautical fiction, 1990's Manhunt. In the area of naval history, he also authored Samuel Waters, Lieut. RN (1949), Britannia Rules (1977), and Gunpowder, Treason, and Plot (1978). Others books by Parkinson, which ranged from cultural commentary to more overt satire, include The Evolution of Political Thought (1958), The Law and the Profits (1960), In-Law and Outlaws (1962), Left Luggage (1967), and The Law of Delay (1970).

Parkinson married three times during his life. His first wife was Ethelwyn Edith Graves, whom he married in 1943; that marriage was dissolved. Journalist and author Elizabeth Ann Fry became his second wife in September of 1952; and at the time of his death he was married to Iris Hilda Waters, his wife since 1985. Parkinson's children from his first marriage are Alison Barbara and Christopher Francis Graves; those from his second marriage are Charles Nigel Kennedy, Antonia Patricia Jane, and Jonathan Neville Trollope. Parkinson married three times during his life. His first wife was Ethelwyn Edith Graves, whom he married in 1943; that marriage was dissolved. Journalist and author Elizabeth Ann Fry became his second wife in September of 1952; and at the time of his death he was married to Iris Hilda Waters, his wife since 1985. Parkinson's children from his first marriage are Alison Barbara and Christopher Francis Graves; those from his second marriage are Charles Nigel Kennedy, Antonia Patricia Jane, and Jonathan Neville Trollope.

A Contemporary Authors contributor once noted of Parkinson: "Typical of his tongue-in-cheek satire on managerial bureaucracy is his estimation that the managerial ranks inevitably increase between 5.7 and 6.56 percent annually." "Other observations," the contributor added, "include his statement that the difference between a senior and a junior businessman is the time it takes for each to arrive at his office." Also described was Parkinson's insistence that he was really a satirist rather than a humorist . "A humorist," Parkinson explained, "… writes about wildly improbabl[e] things; but the whole point about me is that whatever I write is true. Nothing is dreamt up. It's how the world is actually organized." A Contemporary Authors contributor once noted of Parkinson: "Typical of his tongue-in-cheek satire on managerial bureaucracy is his estimation that the managerial ranks inevitably increase between 5.7 and 6.56 percent annually." "Other observations," the contributor added, "include his statement that the difference between a senior and a junior businessman is the time it takes for each to arrive at his office." Also described was Parkinson's insistence that he was really a satirist rather than a humorist . "A humorist," Parkinson explained, "… writes about wildly improbabl[e] things; but the whole point about me is that whatever I write is true. Nothing is dreamt up. It's how the world is actually organized."

Parkinson enjoyed a busy life of travel, writing, and teaching. He also found time for leisure activities, such as painting, theater, listening to radio, and watching television, and also enjoyed investigating castle ruins. He died on March 10, 1993, at a clinic near his home in Canterbury, England. Parkinson enjoyed a busy life of travel, writing, and teaching. He also found time for leisure activities, such as painting, theater, listening to radio, and watching television, and also enjoyed investigating castle ruins. He died on March 10, 1993, at a clinic near his home in Canterbury, England.

Early life and education Early life and education

The youngest son of William Edward Parkinson (1871-1927), an art master at North East County School and from 1913 principal of York School of Arts and Crafts, and his wife, Rose Emily Mary Curnow (born 1877), the young Parkinson attended St. Peter's School, York , where in 1929 he won an exhibition for studying history at Emmanuel College at the University of Cambridge , where he was graduated in 1932. As an undergraduate, Parkinson developed an interest in naval history , which he pursued when the Pellew family gave him access to family papers at the recently established National Maritime Museum , allowing him to write his first book, Edward Pellew , Viscount Exmouth, Admiral of the Red in 1934, then enrolled as a graduate student at King's College London , where he wrote his thesis on War in the Eastern Seas, 1793-1815 , which was awarded the Julian Corbett Prize in Naval History for 1935. The youngest son of William Edward Parkinson (1871-1927), an art master at North East County School and from 1913 principal of York School of Arts and Crafts, and his wife, Rose Emily Mary Curnow (born 1877), the young Parkinson attended St. Peter's School, York , where in 1929 he won an exhibition for studying history at Emmanuel College at the University of Cambridge , where he was graduated in 1932. As an undergraduate, Parkinson developed an interest in naval history , which he pursued when the Pellew family gave him access to family papers at the recently established National Maritime Museum , allowing him to write his first book, Edward Pellew , Viscount Exmouth, Admiral of the Red in 1934, then enrolled as a graduate student at King's College London , where he wrote his thesis on War in the Eastern Seas, 1793-1815 , which was awarded the Julian Corbett Prize in Naval History for 1935.

Academic and military career Academic and military career

While still a graduate student in 1934, Parkinson joined the Territorial Army as a member of the 22nd London Regiment (The Queen's) and commanded an infantry company at the jubilee of King George V in 1935. In the same year, Emmanuel College, Cambridge elected him a research fellow. While at Cambridge, he commanded an infantry unity of the Cambridge University Officers' Training Corps. While still a graduate student in 1934, Parkinson joined the Territorial Army as a member of the 22nd London Regiment (The Queen's) and commanded an infantry company at the jubilee of King George V in 1935. In the same year, Emmanuel College, Cambridge elected him a research fellow. While at Cambridge, he commanded an infantry unity of the Cambridge University Officers' Training Corps.

From 1938 to 1945, he held a succession of positions, first becoming senior history master at Blundell's School in Tiverton, Devon in 1938, then instructor at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth in 1939. In 1940, he was commissioned an Army captain in the Queen's Royal Regiment, which led to a range of staff and military teaching positions in Britain. In 1943, he married, Ethelwyn Edith Graves (born 1915), a nurse tutor at Middlesex Hospital, with whom he was to have two children. From 1938 to 1945, he held a succession of positions, first becoming senior history master at Blundell's School in Tiverton, Devon in 1938, then instructor at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth in 1939. In 1940, he was commissioned an Army captain in the Queen's Royal Regiment, which led to a range of staff and military teaching positions in Britain. In 1943, he married, Ethelwyn Edith Graves (born 1915), a nurse tutor at Middlesex Hospital, with whom he was to have two children.

Demobilized as an Army major in 1945, he was appointed lecturer in history at the University of Liverpool from 1946 to 1949. In 1950, he was appointed Raffles professor of history at the newly established University of Malaya in Singapore , and while there initiated an important series of historical monographs on the history of Malaya , publishing the very first of the series in 1960. A movement developed in the mid-1950s to establish two campuses, one in Kuala Lumpur and one in Singapore . Parkinson actively attempted to persuade the authorities to avoid dividing the university, but to maintain it to serve both Singapore and Malaya in Johor Bahru . His efforts were unsuccessful and the two campuses were established in 1959. The original Singapore campus, where Parkinson taught, later became the University of Singapore . Demobilized as an Army major in 1945, he was appointed lecturer in history at the University of Liverpool from 1946 to 1949. In 1950, he was appointed Raffles professor of history at the newly established University of Malaya in Singapore , and while there initiated an important series of historical monographs on the history of Malaya , publishing the very first of the series in 1960. A movement developed in the mid-1950s to establish two campuses, one in Kuala Lumpur and one in Singapore . Parkinson actively attempted to persuade the authorities to avoid dividing the university, but to maintain it to serve both Singapore and Malaya in Johor Bahru . His efforts were unsuccessful and the two campuses were established in 1959. The original Singapore campus, where Parkinson taught, later became the University of Singapore .

Parkinson and his wife divorced in 1952 and he married the writer and journalist Ann Fry (1921-1983), with whom he had two sons and a daughter. In 1958, while still in Singapore, Parkinson published his most famous work Parkinson's Law , a book that expanded upon a humorous article that he had first published in the Economist magazine in November 1955, satirizing government bureaucracies. The 100-page book, first published in the United States and then in Britain, was illustrated by Osbert Lancaster and became an instant best seller. This collection of short studies explained the inevitability of bureaucratic expansion, arguing that 'work expands to fill the time available for its completion'. Typical of his satire and cynical humour, the book included his famous discourse on color of the bikeshed , a note on why driving on the left side of the road (see road transport ) is natural, and suggested that the Royal Navy would eventually have more admirals than ships. After serving as visiting professor at Harvard University in 1958 and the University of Illinois and the University of California, Berkeley in 1959-60, he resigned his post in Singapore at the University of Malaya to become an independent writer and celebrity. To avoid high taxation in Britain, he moved to the Channel Islands and settled at St Martin's, Guernsey , where he purchased Les Caches Hall and later restored Annesville Manor. His writings from this period included a series of historical novels featuring a fictional naval officer from Guernsey , Richard Delancey, during the Napoleonic era . Parkinson and his wife divorced in 1952 and he married the writer and journalist Ann Fry (1921-1983), with whom he had two sons and a daughter. In 1958, while still in Singapore, Parkinson published his most famous work Parkinson's Law , a book that expanded upon a humorous article that he had first published in the Economist magazine in November 1955, satirizing government bureaucracies. The 100-page book, first published in the United States and then in Britain, was illustrated by Osbert Lancaster and became an instant best seller. This collection of short studies explained the inevitability of bureaucratic expansion, arguing that 'work expands to fill the time available for its completion'. Typical of his satire and cynical humour, the book included his famous discourse on color of the bikeshed , a note on why driving on the left side of the road (see road transport ) is natural, and suggested that the Royal Navy would eventually have more admirals than ships. After serving as visiting professor at Harvard University in 1958 and the University of Illinois and the University of California, Berkeley in 1959-60, he resigned his post in Singapore at the University of Malaya to become an independent writer and celebrity. To avoid high taxation in Britain, he moved to the Channel Islands and settled at St Martin's, Guernsey , where he purchased Les Caches Hall and later restored Annesville Manor. His writings from this period included a series of historical novels featuring a fictional naval officer from Guernsey , Richard Delancey, during the Napoleonic era .

After the death of his second wife in 1984, he married again in the following year to Iris Hilda Waters (d. 1994) and moved to the Isle of Man . After two years there, they moved to Canterbury , Kent , where Parkinson died in March 1993 at the age of 83. He was buried in Canterbury. After the death of his second wife in 1984, he married again in the following year to Iris Hilda Waters (d. 1994) and moved to the Isle of Man . After two years there, they moved to Canterbury , Kent , where Parkinson died in March 1993 at the age of 83. He was buried in Canterbury.

Published works Published works

Naval novel series (the Richard Delancey series) Naval novel series (the Richard Delancey series)

  • The Devil to Pay (1973) The Devil to Pay (1973)
  • The Fireship (1975) The Fireship (1975)
  • Touch and Go (1977) Touch and Go (1977)
  • Dead Reckoning (1978) Dead Reckoning (1978)
  • So Near, So Far (1981) So Near, So Far (1981)
  • The Guernseyman (1982) The Guernseyman (1982)

Other nautical fiction Other nautical fiction

  • Manhunt (1990)

Other fiction Other fiction

  • Ponies Plot (1965) Ponies Plot (1965)

Biographies of fictional characters Biographies of fictional characters

  • The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower (1970) The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower (1970)
  • Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman (1979) Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman (1979)

Naval history Naval history

  • Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934) Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934)
  • The Trade Winds, Trade in the French Wars 1793-1815 (1948) The Trade Winds, Trade in the French Wars 1793-1815 (1948)
  • Samuel Walters, Lieut. RN (1949) Samuel Walters, Lieut. RN (1949)
  • Trade in the Eastern Seas (1955) Trade in the Eastern Seas (1955)
  • British Intervention in Malaya, 1867-1877 (1960) British Intervention in Malaya, 1867-1877 (1960)
  • East and West (1963) East and West (1963)
  • Britannia Rules (1977) Britannia Rules (1977)
  • A Short History of the British Navy, 1776-1816 A Short History of the British Navy, 1776-1816
  • Portsmouth Point, The Navy in Fiction, 1793-1815 (1948) Portsmouth Point, The Navy in Fiction, 1793-1815 (1948)

Other non-fiction Other non-fiction

  • Parkinson's Law (1957) Parkinson's Law (1957)
  • The Evolution of Political Thought (1958) The Evolution of Political Thought (1958)
  • The Law and the Profits (1960) The Law and the Profits (1960)
  • In-Laws and Outlaws (1962) In-Laws and Outlaws (1962)
  • Parkinsanities (1965)
  • Left Luggage (1967) Left Luggage (1967)
  • Mrs. Parkinson's Law (1968) Mrs. Parkinson's Law (1968)
  • The Law of Delay (1970) The Law of Delay (1970)
  • The fur-lined mousetrap (1972) The fur-lined mousetrap (1972)
  • The Defenders, Script for a "Son et Lumière" in Guernsey (1975) The Defenders, Script for a "Son et Lumière" in Guernsey (1975)
  • Gunpowder, Treason and Plot (1978) Gunpowder, Treason and Plot (1978)

Audio recordings Audio recordings

  • Discusses Political Science with Julian H. Franklin (10 LPs) (1959) Discusses Political Science with Julian H. Franklin (10 LPs) (1959)

帕金森定律

  諾斯古德·帕金森通過長期調查研究,寫了一本名叫《帕金森定律》的書,他在書中闡述了機構人員膨脹的原因及後果:一個不稱職的官員,可能有三條出路。第一是申請退職,把位子讓給能幹的人;第二是讓一位能幹的人來協助自己工作;第三是任用兩個水平比自己更低的人當助手。

  這第一條路是萬萬走不得的,因為那樣會喪失許多權力;第二條路也不能走,因為那個能幹的人會成為自己的對手;看來只有第三條路最適宜。於是,兩個平庸的助手分擔了他的工作,他自己則高高在上發號施令。兩個助手既無能,也就上行下效,再為自己找兩個無能的助手。如此類推,就形成了一個機構臃腫、人浮於事、相互扯皮、效率低下的領導體系。

  至上而下,一級比一級庸人多,第二條產生出機構臃腫的龐大管理機構。由於對於一個組織而言,管理人員或多或少是註定要增長的。那麼這個帕金森定律,註定要起作用。也就是有這樣一個公式:

  X=\left[ 100 (2KM+L)/YN \right]*100%

  其中K表示一個要求派助手從而達到個人目的人。從這個人被任命一直到他退休,這期間的年齡差別用L來表示。M是部門內部行文通氣而耗費的勞動時數。N是被管理的單位。用這個公式求出的X就是每年需要補充的新職工人數。數學家們當然懂得,要找出百分比只要用X乘100,再除以去年的總數Y就可以了。不論工作量有無變化,用這個公式求出來的得數總是處在5.17-6.56%之間。

  顯然,如此類推,就形成了一個機構重疊、人浮於事、互相扯皮、效率低下的領導體系。而且這個定律不僅在官場中出現,在很多組織中都能看到這樣的帕金森現象。

  帕金森定律警示的道理

  帕金森定律告訴我們這樣一個道理:不稱職的行政首長一旦占據領導崗位,龐雜的機構和過多的冗員便不可避免,庸人占據著高位的現象也不可避免,整個行政管理系統就會形成惡性膨脹,陷入難以自拔的泥潭。這樣就會在官場中形成類似的“鮮花”插在“牛糞”上的現象,鮮花就好比是那些公司中的領導職位,牛糞就是那些公司中平庸的領導者,而這種“牛糞”插在“鮮花”上的危害是極其大的。例如有一個水利局實行銀行代發工資兩個月後,職工們竟發現多出了34張“嘴”,有34名非水利局職工,卻擁有水利局職工的工資帳戶。後經查實,這多出的34張“嘴”都是水利局幹部的親屬,其中21人是水利局副科級以上幹部的子女親屬。這其中有含飴弄孫的老人,目不識丁的農婦,甚至還有9名是正在學習的大中專學生。寧夏西海固地區同心縣,曾經是以“苦甲天下”而聞名的,但就是在哪裡,這種帕金森現象十分常見,在同心縣部分幹部違法亂紀,有能力的人才得不到中用,而那些能力平庸的人又大量超編進入行政機構,致使這個國家級貧困縣吃“皇糧”的人數畸形膨脹。冗員吃空了財政預算、補貼,就連專項資金也被挪用……這種“貧困的腐敗”,引發了一連串的咄咄怪事——在這個僅有33萬人口的貧困縣裡,吃“皇糧”者高達1.1萬人,全縣超編人員高達2800多人。讓人匪夷所思的是,在這支超編大軍中,有大批“拿著俸祿不上朝”的”掛職幹部”,輪流上班的“輪崗幹部”, 10來歲的“娃娃幹部”,四五歲的“學齡前兒童幹部”。縣烈士陵園只有3座墓碑,但卻供養著20名管理人員,難怪有人嘲諷是“20個活人守著3個死人”。機構、人員過多過濫而造成的效率低下,幾乎成了一些地方的通病,而少數“懶和尚”當主持而產生的“食客者眾”,更成了這些部門的“痼疾”。

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