戈登·圖洛克

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戈登·图洛克(Gordon Tullock)
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戈登·圖洛克(Gordon Tullock)
戈登·圖洛克(Gordon Tullock)——尋租理論創始人、公共選擇理論之父

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戈登·圖洛克簡介

  戈登·圖洛克(Gordon Tullock)1922年出生於美國伊利諾斯州,是國際上最為重要的公共選擇經濟學家,著述豐富。他致力於將經濟學的理性分析方法引入政治決策過程的研究,研究領域覆蓋國家起源理論、官僚主義、獨裁、民主和法庭內部的決策行為等等。他最近一個職位是在喬治·梅森大學George Mason University)的法和經濟學研究中心擔任教授。

  1922年出生於美國伊利諾斯州,1947年獲得芝加哥大學法學博士學位,1992年獲芝加哥大學法學榮譽博士學位。1949—1956年任職於美國外交部,曾先後在中國天津、香港和南韓等國家和地區從事過外交服務工作,其間開始轉向對經濟學的研究。1957年在費城第一次與布坎南相遇,他關於官僚政治的經濟學分析引起了布坎南的重視。

  1958年被邀請作為博士後人員加盟由布坎南和沃倫·納特在弗吉尼亞大學創辦的傑菲遜政治經濟學研究中心(1969年更名為公共選擇研究中心)

  1962年,他和布坎南合著的《同意的計算》(中國社會科學出版社,1999年)為公共選擇學派奠定了理論基礎,並標志著公共選擇作為一門獨立的學科得以產生。從此,塔洛克的名字也與布坎南和公共選擇聯繫在一起。

  1963年他和布坎南創立了“公共選擇學會”,1965年出版了他的個人專著《官僚政治學》,開啟了公共選擇理論中的官僚經濟學 1967年發表了《關稅、壟斷和偷竊的福利成本》(《經濟社會體制比較》2000年第1期)一文,奠定了他作為尋租理論創始人的地位。

  1969年他創立了《公共選擇》雜誌,並擔任該雜誌主編長達二十五年之久,使這本雜誌成為目前全世界30種最重要的期刊之一。

  塔洛克曾經擔任過公共選擇學會第二任會長,東部經濟學會會長,南部經濟學會會長。1998年獲得美國經濟協會“傑出會員獎”(該獎只授予那些對經濟理論和經濟思想作出過傑出貢獻的美國經濟學家)。

  到 1991年為止他的論文和論著被三十幾個學科引證達3991次。被當今活著的最著名的經濟學術史專家馬克·布勞格(張維迎,1997年)列入《世界重要經濟學辭典》(經濟科學出版社,1987年)、《凱恩斯以後最有影響的100位經濟學家》(西南財經大學,1989年)。


  塔洛克還是《新帕爾格需夫經濟學大辭典》中“公共選擇”、“尋租”和“經濟學在生物學中的運用”等辭條的撰寫人,這在相當程度上也反映了他在這些領域的貢獻。因為,該辭典的主編在“出版說明”中指出:“經過深入討論和協商,編輯們篩選和確定了條目,並約請數百名學者撰稿,他們的學術專長堪稱當今經濟學各個分支和各種觀點的代表”(《新帕爾格雷夫經濟學大辭典》第一卷,經濟科學出版社,1992年,第1頁)。除前面列舉的代表著和論文以外,塔洛克還著有《關於政治數學》(1967年)、《私人欲望、公共途徑理想政府範圍的經濟學分析》(1970年)、《收入再分配經濟學》(1983年)、《新聯邦擁護者》(1994年)、《非人類社會經濟學》(1994)、《尋租》(1994年,西南財經大學出版社,1999年)、《論投票》(1998年)等23部著作和幾百篇論文,它們主要涉及福利經濟學、公共選擇、法和經濟學、生物經濟學等領域。

Gordon Tullock

  Gordon Tullock (born February 13, 1922) is a retired Professor of Law and Economics at the George Mason University School of Law in Arlington, Virginia.

  A native of Rockford, Illinois, Tullock was in the Foreign Service posted in China and later participated in the Normandy invasion. He was fluent in Chinese at one point of time and an expert on Chinese cuisine.

  He received his J.D. from the University of Chicago in 1947 and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1994. He is a distinguished fellow of the American Economic Association (1998). He has published more than 150 papers and 23 books, including The Politics of Bureaucracy (1965), Private Wants, Public Means (1970), The Logic of the Law (1971), The Vote Motive (1976; 2006), Autocracy (1987), Rent Seeking (1993), The Economics of Non-Human Societies (1994) and On Voting: A Public Choice Approach (1998).

  The Calculus of Consent (1962), which he co-authored with James M. Buchanan, is considered to be one of the classic works that founded the discipline of public choice theory. In 1967 he identified the phenomenon of rent-seeking in one of the most groundbreaking economics papers ever published. “Tullock’s hypotheses,” “Tullock’s laws,” and “Tullock’s paradoxes” have shaped the development of public choice and have charted new areas in law and economics and sociobiology.

  In 1966, Professor Tullock became the founding editor of Papers in Non-Market Decision Making, a journal which was later renamed Public Choice. Until May 1990 he remained senior editor of Public Choice. He has also served as President of the Southern Economic Association, the Western Economic Association and the Public Choice Society. In 1996 he was elected to the American Political Science Review Hall of Fame.

  What is Gordon Tullock Most Famous For?

  His pioneering work in public choice theory and the political economy of rent seeking. His book The Calculus of Concent which he coauthored with Nobel Laureaute James Buchanan is one of the most widely read post-war economics books.

  Well-Known Articles Written by Gordon Tullock

  His article "The Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies and Theft" in the Western Economics Journal (1967) is well known. His article "Public Decisions and Public Goods" is also well known. My favorite Gordon Tullock paper is "The General Irrelevance of the General Impossibility Theorem" (1967) which is still studied in many Political Economy classes.

  Books Written by Gordon Tullock

  Tullock has written many books, none of which were as famous as The Calculus of Concent. His biography lists the following books: The Logic of the Law, The Politics of Bureaucracy, The Social Dilemma, Autocracy, The Economics of Non-Human Societies, Rent Seeking and On Voting.

  Graduate Students of Gordon Tullock

  Tullock's work has influenced thousands of students in Political Economy, but to my knowledge he does not have any graduate students of note.

  What Will Gordon Tullock Be Remembered For?

  Gordon Tullock, along with James Buchanan created public choice theory, which has revolutionized the field of political economy. Mancur Olson's The Logic of Collective Action and An Economic Theory of Democracy built on a lot of the early public choice theory and brought those ideas into the mainstram. EconLib has a terrific article on public choice theory.

  Why Gordon Tullock May Win the Nobel Prize in 2003

  Gordon Tullock revolutionized a field of study like few other economists ever have. Tullock is a hero of mine, so I'll be hoping that he wins.

  Why Gordon Tullock May Not Win the Nobel Prize in 2003

  When James Buchanan won the Nobel Prize in 1986, the Nobel commitee acknowledged the study of public choice theory. They may not want to do so again. Many economists believed that Tullock would some day win the award jointly with Mancur Olson, but Olson passed away a few years ago and is thus ineligible for the award.

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