克斯塔·馬凱德蒂

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克斯塔·马凯德蒂(Costas Markides)
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克斯塔·馬凱德蒂(Costas Markides)
克斯塔·馬凱德蒂(Costas Markides)

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克斯塔·馬凱德蒂簡介

  克斯塔·馬凱德蒂(Costas Markides)倫敦商學院戰略領導學著名教授,被華爾街日報描述為“叢林策略”(Jungle strategy)的創始人。

科斯塔·馬吉德論叢林策略

  他最近接受“商業策略評論”(Business Strategy Review)的訪問時,針對企業是否需要“策略”提出看法。

  馬凱斯指出,假設你發現自己困在一座危險的森林里,天已黑了,你只能看到幾呎的距離。但是你還是得設法逃出這個叢林,你需不需要策略?

  在這個情況下,你最不可能選擇在原地站著不動,對“不確定”開始感到麻痹。你必鬚根據所擁有的信息,分析出所處的地理位置,然後找出方向。這是策略的首要原則:根據當時所擁有的信息,做出困難的選擇。

  策略的第二原則是:停止分析,採取行動。即使你並不完全確定判斷是否正確,還是得動身。當你開始移動,新信息自然會出現,然後,你可以根據新信息修正最初的方向。

  接著,你會面臨策略的第三原則:隨著嘗試錯誤,你開始一邊學習,一邊修正你的策略。如果你遇到野獸的突襲或走到懸崖邊,策略就必須改變。因此,策略就是在不確定下,做出困難的選擇,並一路學習與調整你最初的決定。顯然,即使在不確定的年代里,企業都還是需要“策略”。

  只是,你需要的“策略”必須與競爭對手不同。馬凱斯表示,相同產業的主管,常有相同的疑問:他們的供貨商都相同、組織架構也類似、從相同的信息提供者取得信息、聘請同樣的顧問,如何能夠發展出不同的“策略”?

  以一個班級的學生為例,他們使用來自同一個老師的教材,接收相同的指示,但是學生最後學到的東西不會一樣。關鍵就在於學生取得信息後,透過腦袋的思考、整合的過程不同,也就是處理信息的方式不一樣。套用在企業里,你怎麼分析信息,最後就會決定你的做法。因此,能夠發展不同“策略”的企業,最後就會勝出。對於多數企業來說,光只“比別人做得更好”並不是正確的路,玩不同的游戲才是重點。

  一九七○年代,瑞士帥奇表(Swatch)以技術名聞遐邇。當日本精工表(Seiko)以低價、先進科技等特色來勢洶洶,大家都以為這次帥奇表將萬劫不復。可是,帥奇表並沒有被打倒,它發展出新的競爭優勢樣式與設計,和別人玩不一樣的游戲。

  再看看美林證券的例子,它以其研究與提供的意見著稱。嘉信理財(Charles Schwab)與 E*trade 都是以低交易成本及快速處理程式為主要訴求。美林證券如果選擇與它們玩一樣的游戲,註定會失敗。企業必須要思考,你有什么不一樣的理由,讓顧客找上你?

  還在懷疑“策略”無用嗎?走別人不走的路吧!

Costas Markides

  Costas Markides is one of the top keynote business and strategy speakers in the world today. He is a professor of Strategic and International Management and holds the Robert P. Bauman Chair of Strategic Leadership at the London Business School.

  A native of Cyprus, he received his BA (Distinction) and MA in Economics from Boston University, and his MBA and DBA from the Harvard Business School.

  He has done research and published on the topics of:

  • strategic innovation
  • corporate restructuring
  • refocusing
  • international acquisitions
  • management of diversified firms
  • the use of innovation and creativity to achieve strategic breakthroughs

  His book Diversification, Refocusing and Economic Performance was published by MIT Press in December 1995 and his book All the Right Moves: A Guide to Crafting Breakthrough Strategy was published by Harvard Business School Press in 2000 and was short-listed for the Igor Ansoff Strategic Management Award 2000. A third book, (co-edited with Michael Cusumano) entitled Strategic Thinking for the Next Economy was published by Jossey-Bass in May 2001. His new book (with Paul Geroski), entitled Fast Second: How Smart Companies Bypass Radical Innovation to Enter and Dominate New Markets was published in 2005 and was short-listed for the FT/Goldman Sachs Business Book of the year Award 2005.

  His publications have also appeared in journals such as the Harvard Business Review, Sloan Management Review, Directors & Boards, Leader to Leader, Long Range Planning, Business Strategy Review, British Journal of Management, Journal of International Business Studies, Strategic Management Journal and the Academy of Management Journal.

  He has taught on many in-company programmes (for companies such as Unilever, Boeing, Pirelli, Honeywell, Nestle, ABF, Warner Lambert, LVMH, and Sara Lee) and is on the Academic Board of the Cyprus International Institute of Management (CIIM). He is the Associate Editor of the European Management Journal and is on the Editorial Board of the Strategic Management Journal and the Sloan Management Review. He is also a member of the Academy of Management and the Strategic Management Society. His current research interests include the management of diversified firms and the use of innovation and creativity to achieve strategic breakthroughs.

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