克斯塔·马凯德蒂

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克斯塔·马凯德蒂(Costas Markides)
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克斯塔·马凯德蒂(Costas Markides)
克斯塔·马凯德蒂(Costas Markides)

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克斯塔·马凯德蒂简介

  克斯塔·马凯德蒂(Costas Markides)伦敦商学院战略领导学著名教授,被华尔街日报描述为“丛林策略”(Jungle strategy)的创始人。

科斯塔·马吉德论丛林策略

  他最近接受“商业策略评论”(Business Strategy Review)的访问时,针对企业是否需要“策略”提出看法。

  马凯斯指出,假设你发现自己困在一座危险的森林里,天已黑了,你只能看到几呎的距离。但是你还是得设法逃出这个丛林,你需不需要策略?

  在这个情况下,你最不可能选择在原地站着不动,对“不确定”开始感到麻痹。你必须根据所拥有的信息,分析出所处的地理位置,然后找出方向。这是策略的首要原则:根据当时所拥有的信息,做出困难的选择。

  策略的第二原则是:停止分析,采取行动。即使你并不完全确定判断是否正确,还是得动身。当你开始移动,新信息自然会出现,然后,你可以根据新信息修正最初的方向。

  接着,你会面临策略的第三原则:随着尝试错误,你开始一边学习,一边修正你的策略。如果你遇到野兽的突袭或走到悬崖边,策略就必须改变。因此,策略就是在不确定下,做出困难的选择,并一路学习与调整你最初的决定。显然,即使在不确定的年代里,企业都还是需要“策略”。

  只是,你需要的“策略”必须与竞争对手不同。马凯斯表示,相同产业的主管,常有相同的疑问:他们的供货商都相同、组织架构也类似、从相同的信息提供者取得信息、聘请同样的顾问,如何能够发展出不同的“策略”?

  以一个班级的学生为例,他们使用来自同一个老师的教材,接收相同的指示,但是学生最后学到的东西不会一样。关键就在于学生取得信息后,透过脑袋的思考、整合的过程不同,也就是处理信息的方式不一样。套用在企业里,你怎么分析信息,最后就会决定你的做法。因此,能够发展不同“策略”的企业,最后就会胜出。对于多数企业来说,光只“比别人做得更好”并不是正确的路,玩不同的游戏才是重点。

  一九七○年代,瑞士帅奇表(Swatch)以技术名闻遐迩。当日本精工表(Seiko)以低价、先进科技等特色来势汹汹,大家都以为这次帅奇表将万劫不复。可是,帅奇表并没有被打倒,它发展出新的竞争优势样式与设计,和别人玩不一样的游戏。

  再看看美林证券的例子,它以其研究与提供的意见着称。嘉信理财(Charles Schwab)与 E*trade 都是以低交易成本及快速处理程序为主要诉求。美林证券如果选择与它们玩一样的游戏,注定会失败。企业必须要思考,你有什幺不一样的理由,让顾客找上你?

  还在怀疑“策略”无用吗?走别人不走的路吧!

Costas Markides

  Costas Markides is one of the top keynote business and strategy speakers in the world today. He is a professor of Strategic and International Management and holds the Robert P. Bauman Chair of Strategic Leadership at the London Business School.

  A native of Cyprus, he received his BA (Distinction) and MA in Economics from Boston University, and his MBA and DBA from the Harvard Business School.

  He has done research and published on the topics of:

  • strategic innovation
  • corporate restructuring
  • refocusing
  • international acquisitions
  • management of diversified firms
  • the use of innovation and creativity to achieve strategic breakthroughs

  His book Diversification, Refocusing and Economic Performance was published by MIT Press in December 1995 and his book All the Right Moves: A Guide to Crafting Breakthrough Strategy was published by Harvard Business School Press in 2000 and was short-listed for the Igor Ansoff Strategic Management Award 2000. A third book, (co-edited with Michael Cusumano) entitled Strategic Thinking for the Next Economy was published by Jossey-Bass in May 2001. His new book (with Paul Geroski), entitled Fast Second: How Smart Companies Bypass Radical Innovation to Enter and Dominate New Markets was published in 2005 and was short-listed for the FT/Goldman Sachs Business Book of the year Award 2005.

  His publications have also appeared in journals such as the Harvard Business Review, Sloan Management Review, Directors & Boards, Leader to Leader, Long Range Planning, Business Strategy Review, British Journal of Management, Journal of International Business Studies, Strategic Management Journal and the Academy of Management Journal.

  He has taught on many in-company programmes (for companies such as Unilever, Boeing, Pirelli, Honeywell, Nestle, ABF, Warner Lambert, LVMH, and Sara Lee) and is on the Academic Board of the Cyprus International Institute of Management (CIIM). He is the Associate Editor of the European Management Journal and is on the Editorial Board of the Strategic Management Journal and the Sloan Management Review. He is also a member of the Academy of Management and the Strategic Management Society. His current research interests include the management of diversified firms and the use of innovation and creativity to achieve strategic breakthroughs.

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