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安·罗伯特·雅克·杜尔哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)
安·羅伯特·雅克·杜爾哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)
安·羅伯特·雅克·杜爾哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)



  安·羅伯特·雅克·杜爾哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)法國經濟學家,18世紀後半葉法國資產階級古典經濟學家。重農學派最重要的代表人物之一。出身於巴黎一個貴族家庭。



  1748 年轉入巴黎索邦神學院,翌年被推選為名譽副院長。曾任索邦神學院院士、名譽副院長。


  1752~1761年間在巴黎歷任公職。在此期間,他曾於 1753~1756年陪同商務監督 J.C.M.V.de古爾奈(1712~1759)到法國外省視察。






  杜爾哥與重農學派成員有一定聯繫,但並未參加其派系活動。他在任職時期推行重農主義政策,因受貴族反對而被取消。他給兩個將回國的中國留學生寫的詢問問題的分析性引言形成《關於財富的形成和分配的考察》一文,把重農主義發展到最高峰 。他在魁奈所劃分的三個階級( 生產階級、不生產階級、地主階級)基礎上,又進一步劃分出資本家和工人,並初步表述了勞動者和勞動條件分離的歷史過程。他把純產品看作是自然界對勞動者的勞動的賜予,實際上認識到地主階級占有純產品是對他人勞動的占有。他還明確提出資本的概念。他基本上拋棄了重農學派的封建主義外觀,並提出了一系列的政策綱領。馬克思稱他是“給法國革命引路的激進資產階級大臣”,“試圖採取法國革命的措施”。著有《關於財富的形成和分配的考察》、《集市與市場》、《基金》等。





  杜爾哥的主要經濟著作是 1766 年寫的《關於財富的形成和分配的考察》。當時,有兩個即將回國的中國留學生受托於回國後將中國情況向在法國的師友作報告。杜爾哥草擬了一系列的問題以便他們在報告中作答。為了使他們瞭解問題的意義和要求,他在問題的前面寫了這一篇分析性的引言。1769年,在P.S.杜邦·德·奈穆爾(1739~1817)的勸說下,杜爾哥將本文投稿於《公民日誌》,分期登載於1769年10號、12號和1770年4號,在1770年2、4兩月發行。



Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Originally A. R. J. Turgot planned to enter the Church but experienced doubts concerning his religious calling and turned to a public career. After holding a number of legal positions he purchased, as was the practice, the office of master of requests, a post that often led to appointment as intendant, the chief administrator of a district. However, Turgot's interests extended beyond the law and administration. He was a friend of the philosophes and frequented the intellectual salons of Paris; in 1760 he visited Voltaire, then in exile. He also contributed articles to the Encyclopédie, wrote an essay on toleration, and planned an ambitious history of the progress of man which he never completed.

Turgot was, however, particularly interested in economics and knew Adam Smith, the great English economist, and François Quesnay, founder of the Physiocratic school. He shared their distrust of government intervention in the economy and their belief in free trade but disagreed with the Physiocratic view that only agriculture was productive, while commerce and industry were unproductive.

In 1761 the King named Turgot intendant of the généralité (district) of Limoges, a poor and backward region. During the 13 years that he spent at Limoges, Turgot attempted, despite local opposition and halfhearted support from the central government, a widespread reform of his district. Historians disagree on how successful he was. He brought tax lists up to date and sought to introduce a more equitable method of collecting taxes. He abolished the corvée (forced labor on the roads by peasants) and substituted for it a tax. Consistent with his belief in free trade, he resisted pressure to repeal legislation permitting the free circulation of grain within France during a period of shortages and suppressed riots against the movement of grain. At the same time he opened workshops to provide work for the unemployed which he financed in part by funds that he forced landowners to contribute. He encouraged improvement of agriculture by such means as an agricultural society. While at Limoges, Turgot also continued to study economics and in 1766 published his most important theoretical work on the subject, Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth, a book whose ideas anticipated Adam Smith's classic study in 1776.

In July 1774 Turgot was named secretary of the navy and the following month controller general of finances (actually prime minister). Although he saw the need for fundamental reforms of the government and society, Turgot also recognized that he must advance cautiously; basic reforms would not only be costly but certain to arouse the opposition of the privileged classes. His first efforts, therefore, emphasized modest reforms and reducing government expenditures by such measures as eliminating useless positions and aid for courtiers. However, even such minor reforms aroused the opposition of the privileged and of financiers whose interests had also been adversely affected. Churchmen, moreover, were suspicious of this friend of the philosophes who "did not attend Mass" and was suspected of favoring tolerance for Protestants.

In January 1776 Turgot presented to the King his famous Six Edicts, which went beyond his previous minor reforms and economies. The two most contested edicts were one ending the monopoly of the guilds and another abolishing the corvée Turgot implied that a tax would be levied upon the "landowners for whom public roads are useful." The Six Edicts now became the target of all the opponents of Turgot; the clergy, the nobles, the queen, Marie Antoinette, all clamored and conspired for his dismissal. They even forged a correspondence in which Turgot made offensive remarks about Louis XVI. The latter, who had at first supported his minister, of whom he had said, "Only Monsieur Turgot and I really love the people, " was unable to resist the pressures upon him and in May 1776 requested Turgot's resignation. The dismissal of Turgot marked the failure of the last attempt to reform the monarchy from within. Turgot, who warned Louis XVI that Charles I of England had lost his head because of his weakness, spent his last years engaged in scholarly and literary work but still sought to influence the King.





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