喬·貝恩

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乔·贝恩(Joe S. Bain)
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喬·貝恩(Joe S. Bain)
喬·貝恩(Joe S. Bain)——現代產業組織理論的先驅之一、哈佛大學產業經濟學權威,SCP模型的建立者。

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喬·貝恩簡介

  Joe S. Bain,1912年7月4日出生於華盛頓洲斯波坎市,1991年9月7日於俄亥俄州哥倫布城逝世。他是一名美國經濟學家,也是產業經濟學的奠基者之一。

  Joe的研究貢獻之一在於他對不完全競爭行業的企業進入壁壘的界定與量化:通過選擇眾多可測指標如企業初創期原始資本籌集條件,行業內已有企業的降價威脅以及產品差異化等因素來間接研究企業進入壁壘問題。他也因此獲得了哈佛大學的博士學位,事實上Joe本人在哈佛大學只待了一年,其餘時間(1939-1975)均在加州伯克利大學執教。

  Joe早期的研究興趣主要集中在太平洋海岸的石油產業經濟績效方面,他於1944-1947年間出版了三本開創性的研究著作,學術界評價他的研究成果是該領域的里程碑,在研究行業結構與績效關係方面,他的研究成果是對微觀經濟學理論相關假設的實證分析

  Joe在1956年出版的前沿著作《新競爭格局中的障礙》中提出解決壟斷問題的新的確定性方法的可能性;另外他在產業結構、行為與績效的關係研究方面提出了新的觀點。Joe隨即於1959年出版了他的經典之作《產業組織》,該書也成為了產業經濟學領域的理論基礎。

  20世紀60年代Joe擔任著加州水產業項目的研究主管,他與RichardCaves、JuliusMargolis一起共同出版了《北加州水產業:公營企業開發稀缺自然資源的競爭績效》一書,這本書也成為了他的巔峰之作。從這本書中我們也可以看出Joe在政策含義深厚的研究領域具備了非凡的鑽研能力,這種能力同樣可以從他在1973年出版的《環境破壞——經濟誘因與補救》一書中得到驗證。

  1982年,Joe獲得了人生中非常重要的一項榮譽——他被選為美國經濟學會的優秀會員,自此,Joe的“產業組織經濟學之父”的學術地位得到正式認可。

Joe S. Bain (July, 4, 1912, Spokane, Washington, USA - September 7, 1991, Columbus, Ohio) was an American economist, and can be seen as one of the founders of industrial economics.

He identified and quantified ‘barriers to entry’ into imperfectly competitive industries by measuring factors such as initial capital requirements, threat of price cutting by established firms, and product differentiation. He obtained a Ph. D. from Harvard University. Except for one year (1951–2) in that university, his entire career was spent teaching at the University of California, Berkeley (1939–75).

His early research interests centered on the economic performance of the Pacific Coast petroleum industry and resulted in the publication of three path-breaking volumes between 1944 and 1947, that have been described as “a landmark in the application and empirical testing of the hypotheses of microeconomic theory with respect to the interrelationships between an industry's structure, conduct, and performance.”

His path-breaking text Barriers to New Competition (1956) offered “the possibility of new, determinate solutions to the oligopoly problem, and adding important new insights into the relationship between industry and structure, behavior and performance,” followed by his classic text Industrial Organization (1959), which “gave the field the rationale and structure that it retains to this day.”

In the 1960s, Joe served as project director of a study of the California water industry, culminating in the 1966 publication, authored jointly with Richard Caves and Julius Margolis, of Northern California's Water Industry: The Comparative Efficiency of Public Enterprise in Developing a Scarce Natural Resource. Here again is an example of his remarkable ability to pick research areas with long-lasting, escalating policy significance. The same applies to his 1973 book on Environmental Decay--Economic Causes and Remedies.

In 1982 Joe received the signal honor of being elected a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association, which described him as “the undisputed father of modern Industrial Organization Economics.”

Major Works[1]

  • "The Profit Rate as Measure of Monopoly Power", 1941, QJE
  • "Market Classifications in Modern Price Theory", 1942, QJE
  • The Economics of the Pacific Coast Petroleum Industry, 1944.
  • Pricing, Distribution and Employment: Economics of an enterprise system, 1948.
  • "A Note on Pricing in Monopoly and Oligopoly", 1949, AER
  • "Relation of Profit Rate to Industry Concentration: American manufacturing, 1936-40", 1951, QJE
  • "Conditions of Entry and the Emergence of Monopoly", 1954, in Edward Chamberlin, editor, Monopoly and Competition
  • "Economies of Scale, Concentration and the Condition of Entry in Twenty Manufacturing Industries", 1954, AER
  • Barriers to New Competition: their character and consequences in manufacturing industries, 1956.
  • Industrial Organization, 1959.
  • "Chamberlin's Impact on Microeconomic Theory", in Kuenne, editor, Monopolistic Competition Theory
  • International Differences in Industrial Structure, 1966
  • Northern California's Water Industry, with R.E. Caves and J. Margolis, 1966.
  • Essays on Economic Development, 1970.
  • Essays on Price Theory and Industrial Organization, 1972.
  • Environmental Decay: Economic causes and remedies, 1973.
  • "Structure versus Conduct as Indicators of Market Performance", 1986, Antitrust Law and Econ Rev
  • Industrial Organization: a treatise, with T.D. Qualls, 1987.

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