乔·贝恩

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乔·贝恩(Joe S. Bain)
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乔·贝恩(Joe S. Bain)
乔·贝恩(Joe S. Bain)——现代产业组织理论的先驱之一、哈佛大学产业经济学权威,SCP模型的建立者。

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乔·贝恩简介

  Joe S. Bain,1912年7月4日出生于华盛顿洲斯波坎市,1991年9月7日于俄亥俄州哥伦布城逝世。他是一名美国经济学家,也是产业经济学的奠基者之一。

  Joe的研究贡献之一在于他对不完全竞争行业的企业进入壁垒的界定与量化:通过选择众多可测指标如企业初创期原始资本筹集条件,行业内已有企业的降价威胁以及产品差异化等因素来间接研究企业进入壁垒问题。他也因此获得了哈佛大学的博士学位,事实上Joe本人在哈佛大学只待了一年,其余时间(1939-1975)均在加州伯克利大学执教。

  Joe早期的研究兴趣主要集中在太平洋海岸的石油产业经济绩效方面,他于1944-1947年间出版了三本开创性的研究著作,学术界评价他的研究成果是该领域的里程碑,在研究行业结构与绩效关系方面,他的研究成果是对微观经济学理论相关假设的实证分析

  Joe在1956年出版的前沿著作《新竞争格局中的障碍》中提出解决垄断问题的新的确定性方法的可能性;另外他在产业结构、行为与绩效的关系研究方面提出了新的观点。Joe随即于1959年出版了他的经典之作《产业组织》,该书也成为了产业经济学领域的理论基础。

  20世纪60年代Joe担任着加州水产业项目的研究主管,他与RichardCaves、JuliusMargolis一起共同出版了《北加州水产业:公营企业开发稀缺自然资源的竞争绩效》一书,这本书也成为了他的巅峰之作。从这本书中我们也可以看出Joe在政策含义深厚的研究领域具备了非凡的钻研能力,这种能力同样可以从他在1973年出版的《环境破坏——经济诱因与补救》一书中得到验证。

  1982年,Joe获得了人生中非常重要的一项荣誉——他被选为美国经济学会的优秀会员,自此,Joe的“产业组织经济学之父”的学术地位得到正式认可。

Joe S. Bain (July, 4, 1912, Spokane, Washington, USA - September 7, 1991, Columbus, Ohio) was an American economist, and can be seen as one of the founders of industrial economics.

He identified and quantified ‘barriers to entry’ into imperfectly competitive industries by measuring factors such as initial capital requirements, threat of price cutting by established firms, and product differentiation. He obtained a Ph. D. from Harvard University. Except for one year (1951–2) in that university, his entire career was spent teaching at the University of California, Berkeley (1939–75).

His early research interests centered on the economic performance of the Pacific Coast petroleum industry and resulted in the publication of three path-breaking volumes between 1944 and 1947, that have been described as “a landmark in the application and empirical testing of the hypotheses of microeconomic theory with respect to the interrelationships between an industry's structure, conduct, and performance.”

His path-breaking text Barriers to New Competition (1956) offered “the possibility of new, determinate solutions to the oligopoly problem, and adding important new insights into the relationship between industry and structure, behavior and performance,” followed by his classic text Industrial Organization (1959), which “gave the field the rationale and structure that it retains to this day.”

In the 1960s, Joe served as project director of a study of the California water industry, culminating in the 1966 publication, authored jointly with Richard Caves and Julius Margolis, of Northern California's Water Industry: The Comparative Efficiency of Public Enterprise in Developing a Scarce Natural Resource. Here again is an example of his remarkable ability to pick research areas with long-lasting, escalating policy significance. The same applies to his 1973 book on Environmental Decay--Economic Causes and Remedies.

In 1982 Joe received the signal honor of being elected a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association, which described him as “the undisputed father of modern Industrial Organization Economics.”

Major Works[1]

  • "The Profit Rate as Measure of Monopoly Power", 1941, QJE
  • "Market Classifications in Modern Price Theory", 1942, QJE
  • The Economics of the Pacific Coast Petroleum Industry, 1944.
  • Pricing, Distribution and Employment: Economics of an enterprise system, 1948.
  • "A Note on Pricing in Monopoly and Oligopoly", 1949, AER
  • "Relation of Profit Rate to Industry Concentration: American manufacturing, 1936-40", 1951, QJE
  • "Conditions of Entry and the Emergence of Monopoly", 1954, in Edward Chamberlin, editor, Monopoly and Competition
  • "Economies of Scale, Concentration and the Condition of Entry in Twenty Manufacturing Industries", 1954, AER
  • Barriers to New Competition: their character and consequences in manufacturing industries, 1956.
  • Industrial Organization, 1959.
  • "Chamberlin's Impact on Microeconomic Theory", in Kuenne, editor, Monopolistic Competition Theory
  • International Differences in Industrial Structure, 1966
  • Northern California's Water Industry, with R.E. Caves and J. Margolis, 1966.
  • Essays on Economic Development, 1970.
  • Essays on Price Theory and Industrial Organization, 1972.
  • Environmental Decay: Economic causes and remedies, 1973.
  • "Structure versus Conduct as Indicators of Market Performance", 1986, Antitrust Law and Econ Rev
  • Industrial Organization: a treatise, with T.D. Qualls, 1987.

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