戈特弗里德·馮·哈伯勒

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戈特弗里德·冯·哈伯勒(Gottfried Von Haberler,1900.7.20∼1995.5.6)
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戈特弗里德·馮·哈伯勒(Gottfried Von Haberler,1900.7.20∼1995.5.6)

目錄

戈特弗里德·馮·哈伯勒生平簡介

  戈特弗里德·馮·哈伯勒(Gottfried Von Haberler,1900.7.20∼1995.5.6)1900.7.20出生於奧地利普克斯多夫,1995.5.6卒於美國華盛頓特區。

  他是奧地利出生的美國經濟學家、寫作家及教育工作者。精於國際貿易路德維希·馮·密塞斯新奧地利學派的參與者。

  • 1925年獲博士學位,後又在英國和美國學習。
  • 1928 年在維也納大學講授經濟學及統計學,後升教授,1936年離開該校。
  • 1934∼1936年兼任國際聯盟顧問。
  • 1936∼1971年任哈佛大學經濟學教授。
  • 1971年參加首都華盛頓美國企業研究所工作。

主要著作及影響

  1937年發表《國際貿易理論》,用機會成本概念重新闡述比較成本理論;該書影響甚廣,被學術界公認為名著。他還發表過有關匯率穩定性與靈活性以及有關關稅的著作。

  1937年他為國聯所撰關於商業迴圈的專題研究《繁榮與蕭條》,充分顯示出其綜述經濟文獻中重要因素的出色才華和能力。

Biographical notes

  Although taught by Wieser and von Mises and later a professor at Vienna, Gottfried Haberler was a product of the Austrian School but not exactly a doctrinaire follower of Austrian theory. In 1936, Haberler moved to Harvard where, together with Schumpeter, he would be instrumental in the formation of the Harvard generation of economists.

  Haberler's two major works - Theory of Internatinonal Trade (1936) and Prosperity and Depression (1937) - were hailed as masterly tomes which, for the first time in either field, drew together numerous scattered ideas into a single theoretical treatment which was both encyclopaedic and rigorous. His work on international trade theory was complemented by several articles which sought to place the theory of comparative advantage on both a positive and normative basis. His rewriting of the theory of comparative advantage in terms of opportunity cost, rather than real cost, led to a long debate with Jacob Viner.

  His work on business cycles contains a sizzling critique of Keynes's General Theory, followed up by his equally unsympathetic 1946 and 1962 reviews of the same. He was an unreconstructed proponent of over-investment theories of the cycle, like that of Hayek.

  Haberler was also addicted to policy. From the beginning, he was a constant advocate of both free trade and flexible exchange rates as well as arguing the Monetarist line on internal government policy. In 1971, Haberler left Harvard to become a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute together with his old schoolmate Fritz Machlup. His neo-liberal policy prescriptions becoming the hallmark of that institution.

  Major works of Gottfried Haberler

  • Der Sinn der indexzahlen, 1927.
  • "Money and the Business Cycle", 1932, in Wright, editor, Gold and Monetary Stabilization
  • Der Internationale Handel, 1933.
  • The Theory of International Trade, 1936.
  • "Mr Keynes' Theory of the Multiplier", 1936, ZfN
  • Prosperity and Depression: A theoretical analysis of cyclical movements, 1937.
  • "The General Theory After Ten Years", 1947, in Harris, editor, The New Economics.
  • "Sixteen Years Later", 1962, in Lekachman, editor, Keynes's General Theory.
  • "The Market for Foreign Exchange and the Stability of the Balance of Payments", 1949, Kyklos.
  • "Some Problems in the Pure Theory of International Trade", 1950, EJ.
  • "The Pigou Effect Once More", 1952, JPE.
  • "Sixteen Years Later", 1963, in Lekachman, editor, Keynes' General Theory
  • "Integration and Growth of the World Economy in perspective", 1964, AER.
  • Money in the International Economy, 1965.
  • Inflation: Its causes and cures, 1966.
  • "Monetary and Fiscal Policy for Economic Stability and Growth", 1967, Il Politico.
  • "Theoretical Reflections on the Trade of Socialist Countries", 1968, in Brown and Neuberger, editors, International Trade and Central Planning.
  • Incomes Policy and Inflation, 1971.
  • Economic Growth and Stability, 1974.
  • Two Essays on the Future of the International Monetary Order, 1974.
  • The World Economy and the Great Depression, 1976.

  Resources on Gottfried von Haberler

  • HET Pages: the Opportunity Cost Doctrine
  • Gottfried Haberler Papers at Hoover Institution
  • Haberler Page at Laura Forgette
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