安·羅伯特·雅克·杜爾哥

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(重定向自杜尔哥)
安·罗伯特·雅克·杜尔哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)
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安·羅伯特·雅克·杜爾哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)
安·羅伯特·雅克·杜爾哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)

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杜爾哥生平簡介

  安·羅伯特·雅克·杜爾哥(Anne Robert Jacques Turgot,1721~1781)法國經濟學家,18世紀後半葉法國資產階級古典經濟學家。重農學派最重要的代表人物之一。出身於巴黎一個貴族家庭。

  1743~1747年先後在路易學院、聖敘爾皮斯神學院、索邦神學院學習。

  1747年獲神學學士學位

  1748 年轉入巴黎索邦神學院,翌年被推選為名譽副院長。曾任索邦神學院院士、名譽副院長。

  1751年放棄神職從政。

  1752~1761年間在巴黎歷任公職。在此期間,他曾於 1753~1756年陪同商務監督 J.C.M.V.de古爾奈(1712~1759)到法國外省視察。

  1765~1766年間,他和A.斯密在巴黎相識。

  1757年,他也曾是F.魁奈的座上客,見到了魁奈和他的若幹徒黨,但他沒有參加他們的派系活動。

  1761~1774年,他任利摩日地方行政長官,在管治區進行若幹整理賦稅、廢除徭役的改革。

  1774年,法國國王路易十六即位後,他一度出任海軍大臣;不久,調任財政大臣。在任期內,他試圖進行多方面的財政改革,其措施集中於1776年初所擬定的六個法令中。其中之一是在全國取消徭役制度;之二是廢除行會;其餘四個則是試圖取消若幹苛捐雜稅。這就是馬克思所說的“杜爾哥試圖預先採取法國革命的措施”。這些法令國王同意了,樞密院通過了,但議會不予備案。國王迫使議會服從。但這些侵犯特權階級權益的措施引起了宮廷和貴族的強烈反對。次年5月杜爾哥終於被免職,法令也隨之被取消。

  杜爾哥是繼魁奈之後的重農學派最重要的代表人物。他深受魁奈的影響但不是魁奈的門徒,也幾乎沒有參加所謂“經濟學家”們的派系活動。他的《關於財富的形成和分配的考察》是重農主義的重要文獻。他發展、修正了魁奈和其徒黨的論點,使重農主義作為資產階級思想體系的特征有更加鮮明的表現。在他那裡重農主義發展到最高峰。

  杜爾哥與重農學派成員有一定聯繫,但並未參加其派系活動。他在任職時期推行重農主義政策,因受貴族反對而被取消。他給兩個將回國的中國留學生寫的詢問問題的分析性引言形成《關於財富的形成和分配的考察》一文,把重農主義發展到最高峰 。他在魁奈所劃分的三個階級( 生產階級、不生產階級、地主階級)基礎上,又進一步劃分出資本家和工人,並初步表述了勞動者和勞動條件分離的歷史過程。他把純產品看作是自然界對勞動者的勞動的賜予,實際上認識到地主階級占有純產品是對他人勞動的占有。他還明確提出資本的概念。他基本上拋棄了重農學派的封建主義外觀,並提出了一系列的政策綱領。馬克思稱他是“給法國革命引路的激進資產階級大臣”,“試圖採取法國革命的措施”。著有《關於財富的形成和分配的考察》、《集市與市場》、《基金》等。

杜爾哥的經濟思想

  古爾奈對杜爾哥的經濟思想的發展有一定的影響,但更重要的影響來自魁奈。雖然杜爾哥沒有參加魁奈這一派的活動,但舉凡創自魁奈的重農學派的基本理論,如自然秩序、自由放任、純產品、農業優先地位、社會經濟劃分、單一地租稅等,杜爾哥幾乎無不接受。

  但杜爾哥對於重農學派的基本理論不是“述而不作”,而是有所發展。他的體系更少封建主義外觀,“純產品”作為自然賜予,不知不覺地成為土地所有者取自土地耕種者的無償的剩餘勞動。在魁奈的社會階級劃分的基礎上,他進一步在生產階級和不生產階級內部又各自再劃分為資本家和工人。資本家靠資本,使別人從事勞動,通過墊支而賺取利潤,而工人則除了能把自己的勞動賣給別人外,就一無所有。他對資本的類別和作用作了進一步的分析,從而論證了利息、利潤的合理性和其在作為資本收入本質上的共同性。在杜爾哥那裡,重農體系發展到最高峰。

杜爾哥的主要著作

  杜爾哥的主要經濟著作是 1766 年寫的《關於財富的形成和分配的考察》。當時,有兩個即將回國的中國留學生受托於回國後將中國情況向在法國的師友作報告。杜爾哥草擬了一系列的問題以便他們在報告中作答。為了使他們瞭解問題的意義和要求,他在問題的前面寫了這一篇分析性的引言。1769年,在P.S.杜邦·德·奈穆爾(1739~1817)的勸說下,杜爾哥將本文投稿於《公民日誌》,分期登載於1769年10號、12號和1770年4號,在1770年2、4兩月發行。

  杜爾哥生前發表的文章還有1756年刊載在《百科全書》上的《集市與市場》和《基金》等。1753年,他還將英國人J.塔克(1712~1799)的《有關商業的重要問題》譯成法文,並於1755年出版。

  但是,在利摩日長官任內,他給上級寫了大量的關於經濟問題的備忘錄和給民眾的公開信;在部長任內,在所頒發的法令前面,他每冠以說明有關原理的前言。這都是有關他的經濟思想的重要文獻。這些文獻和1759年寫的《古爾奈的頌贊》,都被彙集為《杜爾哥全集》,於1809~1811年發表。

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Originally A. R. J. Turgot planned to enter the Church but experienced doubts concerning his religious calling and turned to a public career. After holding a number of legal positions he purchased, as was the practice, the office of master of requests, a post that often led to appointment as intendant, the chief administrator of a district. However, Turgot's interests extended beyond the law and administration. He was a friend of the philosophes and frequented the intellectual salons of Paris; in 1760 he visited Voltaire, then in exile. He also contributed articles to the Encyclopédie, wrote an essay on toleration, and planned an ambitious history of the progress of man which he never completed.

Turgot was, however, particularly interested in economics and knew Adam Smith, the great English economist, and François Quesnay, founder of the Physiocratic school. He shared their distrust of government intervention in the economy and their belief in free trade but disagreed with the Physiocratic view that only agriculture was productive, while commerce and industry were unproductive.

In 1761 the King named Turgot intendant of the généralité (district) of Limoges, a poor and backward region. During the 13 years that he spent at Limoges, Turgot attempted, despite local opposition and halfhearted support from the central government, a widespread reform of his district. Historians disagree on how successful he was. He brought tax lists up to date and sought to introduce a more equitable method of collecting taxes. He abolished the corvée (forced labor on the roads by peasants) and substituted for it a tax. Consistent with his belief in free trade, he resisted pressure to repeal legislation permitting the free circulation of grain within France during a period of shortages and suppressed riots against the movement of grain. At the same time he opened workshops to provide work for the unemployed which he financed in part by funds that he forced landowners to contribute. He encouraged improvement of agriculture by such means as an agricultural society. While at Limoges, Turgot also continued to study economics and in 1766 published his most important theoretical work on the subject, Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Wealth, a book whose ideas anticipated Adam Smith's classic study in 1776.

In July 1774 Turgot was named secretary of the navy and the following month controller general of finances (actually prime minister). Although he saw the need for fundamental reforms of the government and society, Turgot also recognized that he must advance cautiously; basic reforms would not only be costly but certain to arouse the opposition of the privileged classes. His first efforts, therefore, emphasized modest reforms and reducing government expenditures by such measures as eliminating useless positions and aid for courtiers. However, even such minor reforms aroused the opposition of the privileged and of financiers whose interests had also been adversely affected. Churchmen, moreover, were suspicious of this friend of the philosophes who "did not attend Mass" and was suspected of favoring tolerance for Protestants.

In January 1776 Turgot presented to the King his famous Six Edicts, which went beyond his previous minor reforms and economies. The two most contested edicts were one ending the monopoly of the guilds and another abolishing the corvée Turgot implied that a tax would be levied upon the "landowners for whom public roads are useful." The Six Edicts now became the target of all the opponents of Turgot; the clergy, the nobles, the queen, Marie Antoinette, all clamored and conspired for his dismissal. They even forged a correspondence in which Turgot made offensive remarks about Louis XVI. The latter, who had at first supported his minister, of whom he had said, "Only Monsieur Turgot and I really love the people, " was unable to resist the pressures upon him and in May 1776 requested Turgot's resignation. The dismissal of Turgot marked the failure of the last attempt to reform the monarchy from within. Turgot, who warned Louis XVI that Charles I of England had lost his head because of his weakness, spent his last years engaged in scholarly and literary work but still sought to influence the King.

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