艾利·高德拉特

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(重定向自Eli Goldratt)
高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt)
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高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt)

高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt):“约束理论”的创造者

目录

高德拉特简介

  艾利·高德拉特(Eliyahu M. Goldratt,1947年3月31日-2011年6月11日),是以色列物理学家、企业管理大师,“TOC制约法”的创造者。他的第一部作品《目标》大胆借用小说的笔法,说明如何通过近乎常识的逻辑推理,解决复杂的管理问题,结果一炮走红。

  高德拉特20岁时就立志要教导别人思考的方法,他对于传播观念抱有极大的狂热,可以一天只睡3个小时,奔波于世界各地发表演说。他还创立了“高德拉特机构”,并在全球广设分部,以此来训练TOC人才,推广“TOC制约法”,辅导对象包括通用汽车波音飞机在内的诸多知名企业,以及包括教师、美国空军将领在内的各行业知名人士。

  继《目标》之后,高德拉特相继出版了《绝不是靠运气》、《关键链》和《仍然不足够》三本企业管理小说以及数本“TOC制约法”理论专著,在全球各地引起了强烈反响。

  《醒悟》是高德拉特博士在2011年6月11日逝世前出版的最后一本企管小说。

Work

After some experience helping Israeli manufacturers, Goldratt left the academic world to join a company called Creative Output. The company developed and sold a software package, the Optimized Production Technology (OPT). OPT was billed as the first software to provide finite capacity scheduling for production environments. This software and the principles behind it were analyzed by a number of major publications[1].

Goldratt was actively involved in many controversies such as Cost Accounting x Throughput Accounting[2] and culminated in the publication of A Town Without Walls[3].

Within the company Goldratt noticed elements that made him uncomfortable[4] several software implementations did not come close to their estimated potential. After some work Goldratt discovered that the habits, and assumptions (paradigms) of employees and managers prior to using the software were still prominent and negatively influenced results after implementation[4].

His answer was the book The Goal that took 13 months to write. After completion the book was not well received by the company staff and by large publishers[4]. Finally, with help from Larry Gadd the owner of North River Press, the book was published and became a great success[5]. After a while Goldratt noticed that many implementations were conducted using the Book but not the software. This caused further stress in the company and Goldratt tried to capture the essence of how to implement the solution directly in what is now known as Drum-Buffer-Rope method. He published The Race to explain some of the concepts he was working on, and developed a course to teach people how to manage their production using a computer simulation game.

Goldratt tried to move the company down the path of "consulting", trying to help people rethink the way they did things, but Creative Output's declining revenues and Goldratt involvement with anything but the sales of OPT software convinced the shareholders to fire Goldratt (and afterward his closer collaborators).


After leaving Creative Output circa 1985 Goldratt created the Avraham Y Goldratt Institute or AGI (named after his father) to promote the Theory of Constraints and help it be implemented worldwide.

During the time of the AGI Goldratt got deeply involved with the further development of TOC, mainly the Thinking Processes (and launched it publicly in 1991), Critical Chain Project Management and other applications. His concepts influenced applications outside manufacturing and supply management, including the field of sales process engineering[6].

The AGI had many success stories[7]. In 1997, Goldratt followed his plan to retire from the Institute prior to his 50th birthday.


From the beginning of the 2000s Goldratt created the self-funded Goldratt Group and launched the Viable Vision initiative.

He continues the development of TOC both in the Goldratt Group and in active support for other developments like TOC for Education[8], TOC in Healthcare, TOC for the Individual (in the continuity of the Odyssey program and the publishing of The Choice).

高德拉特的4部管理著作

  《目标》

  反映了一位科学家对管理问题的种种思考。高德拉特原本设计了一套昂贵的软件来帮助企业提高经营绩效,并写了《目标》这本书来解释他独创的“制约法”(TheoryOfConstraints,TOC),但是起初根本得不到出版商的青睐,他们质疑:“由物理学家写的企业管理小说?把科学方法应用在企业管理上?没有人会读这样的一本书的。”

  高德拉特不气馁,利用各种机会自己推广这本书,不久信件就如雪片般飞来,一位企业主管在信上告诉他:“这正是我一直在寻找的书!我规定所有员工在读完这本书后,才准休假,这本书让我们公司脱胎换骨!”高德拉特把这封信连同全部书稿,寄给北河出版社,一本畅销书就这样诞生了,连品质管理大师戴明博士读了以后,都大力赞扬。

  《绝不是靠运气》

  《目标》是以生产管理为主线,《绝不是靠运气》以分销管理及如何破解冲突等问题为主线。也是具体介绍TOC的其中一个极重要组成部分———“TOC思维方法”,这关乎企业要解决的3个甚为重要的问题,那就是:要改善些什么?要改善成什么样子?怎样才能有效的、一步一步地执行这些改善?“TOC思维方法”很强调管理人员必须懂得很快、很准确地抓住每日面对的众多难题背后的共同根源,千万不要“救火式”地、“见招拆招”式地处理问题。因为纵使今天的火被扑灭,明天它必然会再燃。没有抓住问题背后的根源,只可能日日疲于奔命。

  《关键链》

  主要谈管理项目,高德拉特博士的结论是:一定要寻求突破。这本书依旧以小说的形式写成,故事的主要人物是来自各行各业的管理人员。鉴于现行的项目管理和知识不足,以应付他们日常工作所需,这群人不约而同参加一个在职工商管理硕士课程,希望得到答案。在导师带领下,他们一步一步分析项目管理问题的源头,然后一起寻找解决方案。同样是苏格拉底式的探索问题,并提出挑战性的新理念。

  《仍然不足够》

  “不足够”,是指什么呢?是指科技,尤其是信息技术。意思就是,要管理好一个企业,信息技术是必须的工具,但光靠它来达到企业业绩的显著改善,还是远远不够的。

  那么,还欠缺什么呢?这本书就是为了解答这个问题。这本小说围绕一家ERP供应商的经历而写成,对信息技术行业,尤其是ERP行业,以及已安装或正考虑安装ERP的企业,会有很大的启发。这个行业竞争激烈,供应商客户关系的甜酸苦辣、惊涛骇浪,是很多人都经历过的。

  作者在最后几章多次提及TOC专家在ERP实施中发挥的作用,主张企业管理阶层、ERP专家以及TOC专家三位一体,协同操作,才是ERP实施之道,才能令新科技快速为企业带来巨大的利润

  小说也点出了世界各地都面对的一大难题,也就是TOC专家严重短缺,人才难求。作者说,以小说形式写一本技术性的书是有风险的。技术性小说犯了什么小错,或者什么解释不够清晰,就会异常碍眼。因此,技术性小说必须将所有资讯极清晰地带出。

高德拉特的主要著作

  • 《目标》
  • 《绝不是靠运气》
  • 《仍然不足够》
  • 《关键链》
  • Late Night Discussions on the Theory of Constraints. (1998) ISBN 0-88427-160-9
  • The Race. (with Robert E. Fox.)(1986) ISBN 0-88427-062-9
  • Essays on the Theory of Constraints. (1987) ISBN 0-88427-159-5
  • What is this Thing Called Theory of Constraints. (1990) ISBN 0-88427-166-8
  • The Haystack Syndrome: Sifting Information Out of the Data Ocean. (1991) ISBN 0-88427-184-6
  • Production the TOC Way (Revised Edition). (2003) ISBN 0-88427-175-7
  • TOC - Self Learning Program. 8 Video Sessions: Operations; Finance and Measurements; Project Management; Distribution; Marketing; Sales and Buy-In; Strategy and tactics (2002)
  • TOC Insights. 4 Self learning computer software: Operations; Finance and Measurements; Project Management; Distribution (2003)
  • Beyond The Goal. Audiobook (2005) ISBN 1-59659-023-8

参考文献

  1. G. Bylinsky. An Efficiency guru with a brown box. Fortune; 120.September 1983
  2. Goldratt, E. M.Cost accounting is enemy number one of productivity.International Conference Proceedings, American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS).October 1983
  3. Goldratt, Eliyahu M. & Plossl, George. Town Without Walls. Whitepaper, distributed during APICS 1984.International Conference in Las Vegas/USA
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Goldratt, Eliyahu M.My Saga to Improve Production. For instance, in the second edition of The Goal
  5. Laurence Gadd. Preface to The Choice
  6. Paul H. Selden.Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop.ASQ Quality Press. Milwaukee, WI.1997.pp33-35, 264-268
  7. AGI- Success Stories.October 25th, 2008
  8. TOC for Education site
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