JEL分類系統

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什麼是JEL分類系統

  JEL分類系統是指美國經濟學會《經濟文獻雜誌》(Journal of Economic Literature)所創立的對經濟學文獻的主題分類系統,並被現代西方經濟學界廣泛採用。該分類方法主要採用開頭的一個英文字母與隨後的兩位阿拉伯數字一起對經濟學各部類進行“辭書式”編碼分類。

JEL分類系統的分類號

  1、總論教學

  ( A- General Economics and Teaching )

  A1

  A1 - General Economics

  A10 - General

  A11 - Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists

  A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines

  A13 - Relation of Economics to Social Values

  A14 - Sociology of Economics

  A19 - Other

  A2

  A2 - Economics Education and Teaching of Economics

  A20 - General

  A21 - Pre-college

  A22 - Undergraduate

  A23 - Graduate

  A29 - Other

  A3

  A3 - Multisubject Collective Works

  A30 - General

  A31 - Multisubject Collected Writings of Individuals

  A32 - Multisubject Volumes

  A39 - Other

  2、流派方法

  ( B-Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology )

  B0

  B0 - General

  B00 - General

  B1

  B1 - History of Economic Thought through 1925

  B10 - General

  B11 - Preclassical

  B12 - Classical

  B13 - Neoclassical through 1925

  B14 - Socialist; Marxist

  B15 - Historical; Institutional

  B16 - Quantitative

  B19 - Other

  B2

  B2 - History of Economic Thought since 1925

  B20 - General

  B21 - Microeconomics

  B22 - Macroeconomics

  B23 - Econometrics; Quantitative Studies

  B24 - Socialist; Marxist

  B25 - Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian

  B29 - Other

  B3

  B3 - History of Thought: Individuals

  B30 - General

  B31 - Individuals

  B4

  B4 - Economic Methodology

  B40 - General

  B41 - Economic Methodology

  B49 - Other

  B5

  B5 - Current Heterodox Approaches

  B50 - General

  B51 - Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian

  B52 - Institutional; Evolutionary

  B53 - Austrian

  B59 - Other

  3、數理數量

  (C-Mathematical and Quantitative Methods)

  C0

  C0 - General

  C00 - General

  C1

  C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: General

  C10 - General

  C11 - Bayesian Analysis

  C12 - Hypothesis Testing

  C13 - Estimation

  C14 - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods

  C15 - Statistical Simulation Methods; Monte Carlo Methods; Bootstrap Methods

  C16 - Specific Distributions

  C19 - Other

  C2

  C2 - Econometric Methods: Single Equation Models; Single Variables

  C20 - General

  C21 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models

  C22 - Time-Series Models

  C23 - Models with Panel Data

  C24 - Truncated and Censored Models

  C25 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models

  C29 - Other

  C3

  C3 - Econometric Methods: Multiple/Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables

  C30 - General

  C31 - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models

  C32 - Time-Series Models

  C33 - Models with Panel Data

  C34 - Truncated and Censored Models

  C35 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models

  C39 - Other

  C4

  C4 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

  C40 - General

  C41 - Duration Analysis

  C42 - Survey Methods

  C43 - Index Numbers and Aggregation

  C44 - Statistical Decision Theory; Operations Research

  C45 - Neural Networks and Related Topics

  C49 - Other

  C5

  C5 - Econometric Modeling

  C50 - General

  C51 - Model Construction and Estimation

  C52 - Model Evaluation and Testing

  C53 - Forecasting and Other Model Applications

  C59 - Other

  C6

  C6 - Mathematical Methods and Programming

  C60 - General

  C61 - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis

  C62 - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium

  C63 - Computational Techniques

  C65 - Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools

  C67 - Input–Output Models

  C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models

  C69 - Other

  C7

  C7 - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory

  C70 - General

  C71 - Cooperative Games

  C72 - Noncooperative Games

  C73 - Stochastic and Dynamic Games; Evolutionary Games

  C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory

  C79 - Other

  C8

  C8 - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

  C80 - General

  C81 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data

  C82 - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data

  C87 - Econometric Software

  C88 - Other Computer Software

  C89 - Other

  C9

  C9 - Design of Experiments

  C90 - General

  C91 - Laboratory, Individual Behavior

  C92 - Laboratory, Group Behavior

  C93 - Field Experiments

  C99 - Other

  4、微觀經濟

  (D-Microeconomics)

  D0

  D0 - General

  D00 - General

  D01 - Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles

  D02 - Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations

  D1

  D1 - Household Behavior and Family Economics

  D10 - General

  D11 - Consumer Economics: Theory

  D12 - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis

  D13 - Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation

  D14 - Personal Finance

  D18 - Consumer Protection

  D19 - Other

  D2

  D2 - Production and Organizations

  D20 - General

  D21 - Firm Behavior

  D23 - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights

  D24 - Production; Capital and Total Factor Productivity; Capacity

  D29 - Other

  D3

  D3 - Distribution

  D30 - General

  D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions

  D33 - Factor Income Distribution

  D39 - Other

  D4

  D4 - Market Structure and Pricing

  D40 - General

  D41 - Perfect Competition

  D42 - Monopoly

  D43 - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection

  D44 - Auctions

  D45 - Rationing; Licensing

  D46 - Value Theory

  D49 - Other

  D5

  D5 - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium

  D50 - General

  D51 - Exchange and Production Economies

  D52 - Incomplete Markets

  D57 - Input–Output Tables and Analysis

  D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models

  D59 - Other

  D6

  D6 - Welfare Economics

  D60 - General

  D61 - Allocative Efficiency; Cost–Benefit Analysis

  D62 - Externalities

  D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement

  D64 - Altruism

  D69 - Other

  D7

  D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

  D70 - General

  D71 - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations

  D72 - Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior

  D73 - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption

  D74 - Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances

  D78 - Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation

  D79 - Other

  D8

  D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

  D80 - General

  D81 - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty

  D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information

  D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge

  D84 - Expectations; Speculations

  D85 - Network Formation

  D86 - Economics of Contract Law

  D89 - Other

  D9

  D9 - Intertemporal Choice and Growth

  D90 - General

  D91 - Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving

  D92 - Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Investment, or Financing

  D99 - Other

  5、巨集觀經濟

  (E-Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics)

  E0

  E0 - General

  E00 - General

  E01 - Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth

  E1

  E1 - General Aggregative Models

  E10 - General

  E11 - Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary

  E12 - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian

  E13 - Neoclassical

  E17 - Forecasting and Simulation

  E19 - Other

  E2

  E2 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

  E20 - General

  E21 - Consumption; Saving

  E22 - Capital; Investment (including Inventories); Capacity

  E23 - Production

  E24 - Employment; Unemployment; Wages

  E25 - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution

  E26 - Informal Economy; Underground Economy

  E27 - Forecasting and Simulation

  E29 - Other

  E3

  E3 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

  E30 - General

  E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation

  E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles

  E37 - Forecasting and Simulation

  E39 - Other

  E4

  E4 - Money and Interest Rates

  E40 - General

  E41 - Demand for Money

  E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System

  E43 - Determination of Interest Rates; Term Structure of Interest Rates

  E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

  E47 - Forecasting and Simulation

  E49 - Other

  E5

  E5 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

  E50 - General

  E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers

  E52 - Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments, and Effects)

  E58 - Central Banks and Their Policies

  E59 - Other

  E6

  E6 -Macroeconomic Policy Formation, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and GeneralOutlook

  E60 - General

  E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination

  E62 - Fiscal Policy; Public Expenditures, Investment, and Finance; Taxation

  E63 - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization

  E64 - Incomes Policy; Price Policy

  E65 - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

  E66 - General Outlook and Conditions

  E69 - Other

  6、國際經濟

  (F-International Economics)

  F0

  F0 - GeneralF00 - General

  F01 - Global Outlook

  F02 - International Economic Order; Noneconomic International Organizations ·Economic Integration and Globalization: General

  F1

  F1 - Trade

  F10 - General

  F11 - Neoclassical Models of Trade

  F12 - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies

  F13 - Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations; International Organizations

  F14 - Country and Industry Studies of Trade

  F15 - Economic Integration

  F16 - Trade and Labor Market Interactions

  F17 - Trade Forecasting and Simulation

  F18 - Trade and Environment

  F19 - Other

  F2

  F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business

  F20 - General

  F21 - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

  F22 - International Migration

  F23 - Multinational Firms; International Business

  F29 - Other

  F3

  F3 - International Finance

  F30 - General

  F31 - Foreign Exchange

  F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements

  F33 - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions

  F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems

  F35 - Foreign Aid

  F36 - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

  F37 - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation

  F39 - Other

  F4

  F4 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

  F40 - General

  F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics

  F42 - International Policy Coordination and Transmission

  F43 - Economic Growth of Open Economies

  F47 - Forecasting and Simulation

  F49 - Other

  7、金融經濟

  (G-Financial Economics)

  G0

  G0 - General

  G00 - General

  G1

  G1 - General Financial Markets

  G10 - General

  G11 - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions

  G12 - Asset Pricing

  G13 - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing

  G14 - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies

  G15 - International Financial Markets

  G18 - Government Policy and Regulation

  G19 - Other

  G2

  G2 - Financial Institutions and Services

  G20 - General

  G21 - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Mortgages

  G22 - Insurance; Insurance Companies

  G23 - Pension Funds; Other Private Financial Institutions

  G24 - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage

  G28 - Government Policy and Regulation

  G29 - Other

  G3

  G3 - Corporate Finance and Governance

  G30 - General

  G31 - Capital Budgeting; Investment Policy

  G32 - Financing Policy; Capital and Ownership Structure

  G33 - Bankruptcy; Liquidation

  G34 - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

  G35 - Payout Policy

  G38 - Government Policy and Regulation

  G39 - Other

  8、公共經濟

  (H-Public Economics)

  H0

  H0 - General

  H00 - General

  H1

  H1 - Structure and Scope of Government

  H10 - General

  H11 - Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government

  H19 - Other

  H2

  H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

  H20 - General

  H21 - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation

  H22 - Incidence

  H23 - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies

  H24 - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies

  H25 - Business Taxes and Subsidies

  H26 - Tax Evasion

  H27 - Other Sources of Revenue

  H29 - Other

  H3

  H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

  H30 - General

  H31 - Household

  H32 - Firm

  H39 - Other

  H4

  H4 - Publicly Provided Goods

  H40 - General

  H41 - Public Goods

  H42 - Publicly Provided Private Goods

  H43 - Project Evaluation; Social Discount Rate

  H49 - Other

  H5

  H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

  H50 - General

  H51 - Government Expenditures and Health

  H52 - Government Expenditures and Education

  H53 - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs

  H54 - Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock

  H55 - Social Security and Public Pensions

  H56 - National Security and War

  H57 - Procurement

  H59 - Other

  H6

  H6 - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

  H60 - General

  H61 - Budget; Budget Systems

  H62 - Deficit; Surplus

  H63 - Debt; Debt Management

  H69 - Other

  H7

  H7 - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

  H70 - General

  H71 - State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

  H72 - State and Local Budget and Expenditures

  H73 - Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects

  H74 - State and Local Borrowing

  H77 - Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism

  H79 - Other

  H8

  H8 - Miscellaneous Issues

  H80 - General

  H81 - Governmental Loans, Loan Guarantees, and Credits

  H82 - Governmental Property

  H83 - Public Administration

  H87 - International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods

  H89 - Other

  9、衛生經濟

  (I-Health, Education and Welfare)

  I0

  I0 - General

  I00 - General

  I1

  I1 - Health

  I10 - General

  I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets

  I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance Abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior

  I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health

  I19 - Other

  I2

  I2 - Education

  I20 - General

  I21 - Analysis of Education

  I22 - Educational Finance

  I23 - Higher Education Research Institutions

  I28 - Government Policy

  I29 - Other

  I3

  I3 - Welfare and Poverty

  I30 - General

  I31 - General Welfare; Basic Needs; Living Standards; Quality of Life; Happiness

  I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

  I38 - Government Policy; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

  I39 - Other

  10、人口經濟

  (J-Labour and Demographic Economics)

  J0

  J0 - General

  J00 - General

  J1

  J1 - Demographic Economics

  J10 - General

  J11 - Demographic Trends and Forecasts

  J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure

  J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

  J14 - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped

  J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination

  J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

  J17 - Value of Life; Foregone Income

  J18 - Public Policy

  J19 - Other

  J2

  J2 - Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human Capital

  J20 - General

  J21 - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

  J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

  J23 - Employment Determination; Job Creation; Demand for Labor; Self-Employment

  J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

  J26 - Retirement; Retirement Policies

  J28 - Safety; Accidents; Industrial Health; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy

  J29 - Other

  J3

  J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

  J30 - General

  J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc.

  J32 - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Private Pensions

  J33 - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods

  J38 - Public Policy

  J39 - Other

  J4

  J4 - Particular Labor Markets

  J40 - General

  J41 - Contracts: Specific Human Capital, Matching Models, Efficiency Wage Models, and Internal Labor Markets

  J42 - Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets

  J43 - Agricultural Labor Markets

  J44 - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations

  J45 - Public Sector Labor Markets

  J48 - Public Policy

  J49 - Other

  J5

  J5 - Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

  J50 - General

  J51 - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects

  J52 - Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective Bargaining

  J53 - Labor–Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence

  J54 - Producer Cooperatives; Labor Managed Firms

  J58 - Public Policy

  J59 - Other

  J6

  J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies

  J60 - General

  J61 - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

  J62 - Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility

  J63 - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs

  J64 - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

  J65 - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings

  J68 - Public Policy

  J69 - Other

  J7

  J7 - Labor Discrimination

  J70 - General

  J71 - Discrimination

  J78 - Public Policy

  J79 - Other

  J8

  J8 - Labor Standards: National and International

  J80 - General

  J81 - Working Conditions

  J82 - Labor Force Composition

  J83 - Workers' Rights

  J88 - Public Policy

  J89 - Other

  11、法律經濟

  (K-Law and Economics)

  K0

  K0 - General

  K00 - General

  K1

  K1 - Basic Areas of Law

  K10 - General

  K11 - Property Law

  K12 - Contract Law

  K13 - Tort Law and Product Liability

  K14 - Criminal Law

  K19 - Other

  K2

  K2 - Regulation and Business Law

  K20 - General

  K21 - Antitrust Law

  K22 - Corporation and Securities Law

  K23 - Regulated Industries and Administrative Law

  K29 - Other

  K3

  K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law

  K30 - General

  K31 - Labor Law

  K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law

  K33 - International Law

  K34 - Tax Law

  K35 - Personal Bankruptcy Law

  K39 - Other

  K4

  K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

  K40 - General

  K41 - Litigation Process

  K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

  K49 - Other

  12、產業組織

  (L-Industrial Organization)

  L0

  L0 - General

  L00 - General

  L1

  L1 - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

  L10 - General

  L11 - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms

  L12 - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies

  L13 - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

  L14 - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks

  L15 - Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility

  L16 - Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics; Macroeconomic Industrial Structure; Industrial Price Indices

  L19 - Other

  L2

  L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

  L20 - General

  L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm

  L22 - Firm Organization and Market Structure: Markets vs. Hierarchies; Vertical Integration; Conglomerates

  L23 - Organization of Production

  L24 - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures

  L25 - Firm Performance: Size, Age, Profit, and Sales

  L29 - Other

  L3

  L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise

  L30 - General

  L31 - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs

  L32 - Public Enterprises

  L33 - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises; Privatization; Contracting Out

  L39 - Other

  L4

  L4 - Antitrust Issues and Policies

  L40 - General

  L41 - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices

  L42 - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts

  L43 - Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation

  L44 - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations

  L49 - Other

  L5

  L5 - Regulation and Industrial Policy

  L50 - General

  L51 - Economics of Regulation

  L52 - Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods

  L53 - Government Promotion of Firms

  L59 - Other

  L6

  L6 - Industry Studies: Manufacturing

  L60 - General

  L61 - Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics

  L62 - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment

  L63 - Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment

  L64 - Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments

  L65 - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology

  L66 - Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco

  L67 - Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather

  L68 - Appliances; Other Consumer Durables

  L69 - Other

  L7

  L7 - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

  L70 - General

  L71 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels

  L72 - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources

  L73 - Forest Products: Lumber and Paper

  L74 - Construction

  L78 - Government Policy

  L79 - Other

  L8

  L8 - Industry Studies: Services

  L80 - General

  L81 - Retail and Wholesale Trade; Warehousing; e-Commerce

  L82 - Entertainment; Media (Performing Arts, Visual Arts, Broadcasting, Publishing, etc.)

  L83 - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism

  L84 - Personal, Professional, and Business Services

  L85 - Real Estate Services

  L86 - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software

  L87 - Postal and Delivery Services

  L88 - Government Policy

  L89 - Other

  L9

  L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

  L90 - General

  L91 - Transportation: General

  L92 - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation: Autos, Buses, Trucks, and Water Carriers; Ports

  L93 - Air Transportation

  L94 - Electric Utilities

  L95 - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities

  L96 - Telecommunications

  L97 - Utilities: General

  L98 - Government Policy

  L99 - Other

  13、企業管理

  (M-Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting)

  M0

  M0 - General

  M00 - General

  M1

  M1 - Business Administration

  M10 - General

  M11 - Production Management

  M12 - Personnel Management

  M13 - Entrepreneurship

  M14 - Corporate Culture; Social Responsibility

  M19 - Other

  M2

  M2 - Business Economics

  M20 - General

  M21 - Business Economics

  M29 - Other

  M3

  M3 - Marketing and Advertising

  M30 - General

  M31 - Marketing

  M37 - Advertising

  M39 - Other

  M4

  M4 - Accounting and Auditing

  M40 - General

  M41 - Accounting

  M42 - Auditing

  M49 - Other

  M5

  M5 - Personnel Economics

  M50 - General

  M51 - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions (hiring, firing, turnover, part-time, temporary workers, seniority issues)

  M52 - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects (stock options, fringe benefits, incentives, family support programs, seniority issues)

  M53 - Training

  M54 - Labor Management (team formation, worker empowerment, job design, tasks and authority, job satisfaction)

  M55 - Labor Contracting Devices: Outsourcing; Franchising; Other

  M59 - Other

  14、經濟史

  (N-Economic History)

  N0

  N0 - General

  N00 - General

  N01 - Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods

  N1

  N1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations

  N10 - General, International, or Comparative

  N11 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N12 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N13 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N14 - Europe: 1913–

  N15 - Asia including Middle East

  N16 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N17 - Africa; Oceania

  N2

  N2 - Financial Markets and Institutions

  N20 - General, International, or Comparative

  N21 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N22 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N23 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N24 - Europe: 1913–

  N25 - Asia including Middle East

  N26 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N27 - Africa; Oceania

  N3

  N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth

  N30 - General, International, or Comparative

  N31 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N32 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N33 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N34 - Europe: 1913–

  N35 - Asia including Middle East

  N36 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N37 - Africa; Oceania

  N4

  N4 - Government, War, Law, and Regulation

  N40 - General, International, or Comparative

  N41 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N42 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N43 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N44 - Europe: 1913–

  N45 - Asia including Middle East

  N46 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N47 - Africa; Oceania

  N5

  N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

  N50 - General, International, or Comparative

  N51 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N52 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N53 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N54 - Europe: 1913–

  N55 - Asia including Middle East

  N56 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N57 - Africa; Oceania

  N6

  N6 - Manufacturing and Construction

  N60 - General, International, or Comparative

  N61 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N62 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N63 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N64 - Europe: 1913–

  N65 - Asia including Middle East

  N66 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N67 - Africa; Oceania

  N7

  N7 - Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

  N70 - General, International, or Comparative

  N71 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N72 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N73 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N74 - Europe: 1913–

  N75 - Asia including Middle East

  N76 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N77 - Africa; Oceania

  N8

  N8 - Micro-Business History

  N80 - General, International, or Comparative

  N81 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N82 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N83 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N84 - Europe: 1913–

  N85 - Asia including Middle East

  N86 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N87 - Africa; Oceania

  N9

  N9 - Regional and Urban History

  N90 - General, International, or Comparative

  N91 - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913

  N92 - U.S.; Canada: 1913–

  N93 - Europe: Pre-1913

  N94 - Europe: 1913–

  N95 - Asia including Middle East

  N96 - Latin America; Caribbean

  N97 - Africa; Oceania

  15、經濟發展

  (O-Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth)

  O1

  O1 - Economic Development

  O10 - General

  O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

  O12 - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

  O13 - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products

  O14 - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology

  O15 - Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

  O16 - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment

  O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements: Legal, Social, Economic, and Political

  O18 - Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses

  O19 - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

  O2

  O2 - Development Planning and Policy

  O20 - General

  O21 - Planning Models; Planning Policy

  O22 - Project Analysis

  O23 - Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development

  O24 - Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy

  O29 - Other

  O3

  O3 - Technological Change; Research and Development

  O30 - General

  O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

  O32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

  O33 - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

  O34 - Intellectual Property Rights: National and International Issues

  O38 - Government Policy

  O39 - Other

  O4

  O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

  O40 - General

  O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

  O42 - Monetary Growth Models

  O47 - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity

  O49 - Other

  O5

  O5 - Economywide Country Studies

  O50 - General

  O51 - U.S.; Canada

  O52 - Europe

  O53 - Asia including Middle East

  O54 - Latin America; Caribbean

  O55 - Africa

  O56 - Oceania

  O57 - Comparative Studies of Countries

  16、經濟體制

  (P-Economic Systems)

  P0

  P0 - General

  P00 - General

  P1

  P1 - Capitalist Systems

  P10 - General

  P11 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform

  P12 - Capitalist Enterprises

  P13 - Cooperative Enterprises

  P14 - Property Rights

  P16 - Political Economy

  P17 - Performance and Prospects

  P19 - Other

  P2

  P2 - Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

  P20 - General

  P21 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform

  P22 - Prices

  P23 - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population

  P24 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation

  P25 - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics; Housing; Transportation

  P26 - Political Economy; Property Rights

  P27 - Performance and Prospects

  P28 - Natural Resources; Energy; Environment

  P29 - Other

  P3

  P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

  P30 - General

  P31 - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

  P32 - Collectives; Communes; Agriculture

  P33 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid

  P34 - Financial Economics

  P35 - Public Economics

  P36 - Consumer Economics; Health, Education, Welfare, and Poverty

  P37 - Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior

  P39 - Other

  P4

  P4 - Other Economic Systems

  P40 - General

  P41 - Planning, Coordination, and Reform

  P42 - Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population

  P43 - Public Economics; Financial Economics

  P44 - National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation

  P45 - International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid

  P46 - Consumer Economics; Welfare and Poverty

  P47 - Performance and Prospects

  P48 - Political Economy ·Legal Institutions; Property Rights

  P49 - Other

  P5

  P5 - Comparative Economic Systems

  P50 - General

  P51 - Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems

  P52 - Comparative Studies of Particular Economies

  P59 - Other

  17、農業經濟

  (Q-Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics)

  Q0

  Q0 - GeneralQ00 - General

  Q01 - Sustainable Development

  Q1

  Q1 - Agriculture

  Q10 - General

  Q11 - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices

  Q12 - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets

  Q13 - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness

  Q14 - Agricultural Finance

  Q15 - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation

  Q16 - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Agricultural Extension Services

  Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade

  Q18 - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

  Q19 - Other

  Q2

  Q2 - Renewable Resources and Conservation

  Q20 - General

  Q21 - Demand and Supply

  Q22 - Fishery; Aquaculture

  Q23 - Forestry

  Q24 - Land

  Q25 - Water

  Q26 - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources

  Q28 - Government Policy

  Q29 - Other

  Q3

  Q3 - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

  Q30 - General

  Q31 - Demand and Supply

  Q32 - Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development

  Q34 - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts

  Q33 - Resource Booms

  Q38 - Government Policy

  Q39 - Other

  Q4

  Q4 - Energy

  Q40 - General

  Q41 - Demand and Supply

  Q42 - Alternative Energy Sources

  Q43 - Energy and the Macroeconomy

  Q48 - Government Policy

  Q49 - Other

  Q5

  Q5 - Environmental Economics

  Q50 - General

  Q51 - Valuation of Environmental Effects

  Q52 - Pollution Control Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects

  Q53 - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste &bull Recycling

  Q54 - Climate; Natural Disasters

  Q55 - Technological Innovation

  Q56 - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounting

  Q57 - Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics

  Q58 - Government Policy

  Q59 - Other

  18、城市經濟

  (R-Urban, Rural and Regional Economics)

  R0

  R0 - General

  R00 - General

  R1

  R1 - General Regional Economics

  R10 - General

  R11 - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, and Changes

  R12 - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade

  R13 - General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies

  R14 - Land Use Patterns

  R15 - Econometric and Input–Output Models; Other Models

  R19 - Other

  R2

  R2 - Household Analysis

  R20 - General

  R21 - Housing Demand

  R22 - Other Demand

  R23 - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

  R29 - Other

  R3

  R3 - Production Analysis and Firm Location

  R30 - General

  R31 - Housing Supply and Markets

  R32 - Other Production and Pricing Analysis

  R33 - Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets

  R34 - Input Demand Analysis

  R38 - Government Policies; Regulatory Policies

  R39 - Other

  R4

  R4 - Transportation Systems

  R40 - General

  R41 - Transportation: Demand; Supply; Congestion; Safety and Accidents

  R42 - Government and Private Investment Analysis

  R48 - Government Pricing; Regulatory Policies

  R49 - Other

  R5

  R5 - Regional Government Analysis

  R50 - General

  R51 - Finance in Urban and Rural Economies

  R52 - Land Use and Other Regulations

  R53 - Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock

  R58 - Regional Development Policy

  R59 - Other

  19、其他專題

  (Z-Other Special Topics)

  Z0

  Z0 - General

  Z00 - General

  Z1

  Z1 - Cultural Economics

  Z10 - General

  Z11 - Economics of the Arts and Literature

  Z12 - Religion

  Z13 - Social Norms and Social Capital; Social Networks

  Z19 - Other

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