积极人格

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什么是积极人格

  积极人格特质是任何事情成功的基本要素。

  这类灵性资产包括乐观、专注力、毅力、诚实、勇气、真诚、勤奋,以及许多其他的特质。

  人格personaity一词,来源于希腊语persona,原指希腊罗马时代戏剧演员在舞台上扮演角色所带的假面具,它代表剧中人物的身分,表现人物的某种典型的心理,类似于中国京剧中的脸谱

  积极人格是积极心理学研究的一个重要内容和概念。

积极人格主要观点

  (1)提倡研究积极人格特质

    积极心理学相信在每一个人的内心深处都存在两股抗争的力量:一股力量是消极的,它代表压抑、侵犯、恐惧、生气、悲伤、悔恨、贪婪、自卑、怨恨、高傲、妄自尊大、自私和说谎等;另一股力量是积极的,它代表喜悦、快乐、希望、负责任、宁静、 谦逊、宽容、仁慈、慷慨等,这两股力量谁都可能战胜谁,关键是看个体自身到底是在给哪一股力量不断注入新的能量,在给哪一股力量创造适宜的生存心理环境。

  (2)强调人格形成过程中各因素的交互作用

  强调人格形成过程中内在因素、外部行为、社会文化环境等各因素的交互作用

  这些因素包括生物遗传因素、自然物理因素(生态环境、气候空间、拥挤程度)、社会文化、家庭环境(父母教养方式、家庭结构、家庭气氛 、出生顺序等)、学校环境、自我调控等。

  (3)强调人的能力和潜力在人格形成过程中的作用

  良好的外部环境是人格形成的一个重要来源,要建构良好的外部环境,可以通过发展人的主动积极行为能力。一个人的现实能力(包括人对自己行为的评价能力、指定目标的能力、实现目标的计划能力等)就被纳入人格的建构之中,并且成为影响人格的一个重要力量。

积极人格特征优势

  The VIA Signature Strength Survey is a 240 question survey that has been taken by hundreds of thousands of people. The VIA Signature Strengths Survey measures 24 character strengths that are taken from Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification by Christopher Peterson and Martin E. P. Seligman, Oxford University Press, 2004. The 24 character strengths are listed below. The results page will show you your 5 greatest character strengths.

  “VIA特征优势调查”是一份面向成千上万的人们的由240个问题组成的调查。VIA特征优势调查测量了从许多种人格优点和品德中选出的24种人格优势,又成性格优势(Character Strengths)——成书为由克里斯托弗·彼德逊和马丁·E.P.·瑟里格曼编写的、牛津大学出版社2004年出版的一本手册和分类指南。这24种人格优势罗列于下,结论那页会显示出你的5种最强的人格优势。

  (1)Creativity (originality, ingenuity):

  Thinking of novel and productive ways to conceptualize and do things.

  创造力(原创性,独创性):思索新颖而有价值的方法来产生概念和做事情。

  (2)Curiosity (interest, novelty-seeking, openness to experience):

  Taking an interest in ongoing experience s afor its own sake; exploring and discovering

  好奇心(兴趣,寻找新事物,开放式体验):对持续的体验和其内在因缘产生兴趣;进行探索和发现。

  (3)Open-mindedness (judgment, critical thinking):

  Thinking things through and examining them from all sides; weighing all evidence fairly.

  头脑开明(判断力,批判性思维):通过全方位测验来思考事物;公平权衡所有的根据。

  (4)Love of learning:

  Mastering new skills, topics, and bodies of knowledge, whether on one's own or formally.

  爱学习:掌握新的技能、话题以及知识本体,不管是出于自愿还是形式要求。

  (5)Perspective (wisdom):

  Being able to provide wise counsel to others; having ways of looking at the world that make sense to oneself and to other people

  洞察力(智慧):能对他人提出明智的建议;能着眼于对己对人有意义的世界。

  (6)Bravery (valor):

  Not shrinking from threat, challenge, difficulty, or pain; acting on convictions even if unpopular.

  勇敢(勇气):不畏威胁、挑战、困顿或苦痛;依觉悟而行,不论其是否被普遍认同。

  (7)Persistence (perseverance, industriousness):

  Finishing what one starts; persisting in a course of action in spite of obstacles.

  持久(有毅力,刻苦发奋):做事有始有终;坚持行为方向,不论障碍险阻。

  (8)Integrity (authenticity, honesty):

  Presenting oneself in a genuine way; taking responsibility for one's feeling and actions

  正直(可靠,诚实):自我表现诚恳;对自己的感觉和行为负责。

  (9)Vitality (zest, enthusiasm, vigor, energy):

  Approaching life with excitement and energy; feeling alive and activated

  有活力(热情,积极,有魄力,有精力):使生活充满激情和能量;感觉活跃、活泼。

  (10)Love:

  Valuing close relations with others, in particular those in which sharing and caring are reciprocated.

  爱:珍爱与他人的亲密关系,尤其是那些其中相互分享、相互关照的。

  (11)Kindness (generosity, nurturance, care, compassion, altruistic love, “niceness”):

  Doing favors and good deeds for others.

  善良(慷慨,关怀,关照,同情,无私的爱,“美好的事物”):为他人帮忙、做好事。

  (12)Social intelligence (emotional intelligence, personal intelligence):

  Being aware of the motives and feelings of other people and oneself.

  社会智商情绪智商,个人智商):了解他人以及自己的目的和感觉。

  (13)Citizenship (social responsibility, loyalty, teamwork):

  Working well as a member of a group or team; being loyal to the group.

  公民权(社会责任,忠诚,团队协作):作为集体或团队中的一员好好工作;对集体忠诚。

  (14)Fairness:

  Treating all people the same according to notions of fairness and justice; not letting personal feelings bias decisions about others.

  公正:依照公平和正义的观念平等对待所有人;不要让个人感觉误导对他人的判定。

  (15)Leadership:

  Encouraging a group of which one is a member to get things done and at the same maintain time good relations within the group.

  领导能力:促进集体,使个人在其中作为成员能完成事情并且同时维持良好的集体关系。

  (16)Forgiveness and mercy:

  Forgiving those who have done wrong; accepting the shortcomings of others; giving people a second chance; not being vengeful

  宽恕和仁慈:宽恕做错事的人;接纳他人的短处;给予他人第二次机会;不心怀报复。

  (17)Humility / Modesty:

  Letting one's accomplishments speak for themselves; not regarding oneself as more special than one is.

  谦虚/谦逊:让人的成绩说话;不自大。

  (18)Prudence:

  Being careful about one's choices; not taking undue risks; not saying or doing things that might later be regretted.

  谨慎:细心于自己的选择;不要冒不当的风险;不说也不做会事后后悔的事。

  (19)Self-regulation (self-control):

  Regulating what one feels and does; being disciplined; controlling one's appetites and emotions.

  自律(自控):管理自己的感觉和行为;守纪律;控制自己的欲望和情绪。

  (20)Appreciation of beauty and excellence (awe, wonder, elevation):

  Appreciating beauty, excellence, and/or skilled performance in various domains of life.

  欣赏美丽和卓越(敬畏,赞叹,上进):欣赏美丽、卓越以及/或在生活的不同领域的娴熟表现。

  (21)Gratitude:

  Being aware of and thankful of the good things that happen; taking time to express thanks.

  感恩:知道并感谢发生的好事情;多多表达谢意。

  (22)Hope (optimism, future-mindedness, future orientation):

  Expecting the best in the future and working to achieve it.

  希望(乐观,为未来打算,为未来定向):对将来有最好的展望,并努力实现它。

  (23)Humor (playfulness):

  Liking to laugh and tease; bringing smiles to other people; seeing the light side.

  幽默(爱玩):喜欢笑,喜欢逗乐;给他人带来欢笑;看事物的光明面。

  (24)Spirituality (religiousness, faith, purpose):

  Having coherent beliefs about the higher purpose, the meaning of life, and the meaning of the universe.

  精神信仰(虔诚,守信,有追求):有对更高追求、生活意义以及宇宙意义的信仰。

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