買方寡占

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買方寡占(Oligopsony)

目錄

什麼是買方寡占

  買方寡占是指市場上有少數幾個購買者。在此,相對於製造商作為供應商、賣方的角色定位,將零售商定位為購買者、買方。當市場上只有少數幾個零售商時,就形成了“買方寡占”。

  買方壟斷與買方寡占在含義上是不一樣的,買方壟斷是指在一個市場上只有一個購買者。

買方寡占的英文解釋

  An oligopsony is a market form in which the number of buyers is small while the number of sellers in theory could be large. This typically happens in market for inputs where a small number of firms are competing to obtain factors of production. It contrasts with an oligopoly, where there are many buyers but just a few sellers. An oligopsony is a form of imperfect competition.

  The terms monopoly (one seller), monopsony (one buyer), and bilateral monopoly have a similar relationship.

  One example of an oligopsony in the world economy is cocoa, where three firms (Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland, and Callebaut) buy the vast majority of world cocoa bean production, mostly from small farmers in third-world countries. Likewise, American tobacco growers face an oligopsony of cigarette makers, where three companies (Altria, Brown & Williamson, and Lorillard Tobacco Company) buy almost 90% of all tobacco grown in the US.[citation needed]

  In each of these cases, the buyers have a major advantage over the sellers. They can play off one supplier against another, thus lowering their costs. They can also dictate exact specifications to suppliers, for delivery schedules, quality, and (in the case of agricultural products) crop varieties. They also pass off much of the risks of overproduction, natural losses, and variations in cyclical demand to the suppliers.

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