诺斯古德·帕金森

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诺斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)
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诺斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)

西里尔·诺斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)

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西里尔·诺斯古德·帕金森简介

  西里尔·诺斯古德·帕金森(Cyril Northcote Parkinson)生于1909年,富有幽默感而又孤高自傲。英国历史学博士,就学于剑桥伦敦大学,先后在皇家海军学院,利物浦大学马来亚大学执教,为英国皇家历史学会会员。60年代移居美国,又在哈佛大学任课。1975年,他在马亚西亚一个海滨度假时,悟出了一个定律,后来他将自己思考的结果发表在伦敦的《经济学家》期刊上,一举成名。《帕金森定律》一书出版以后,被翻译成多国语言,在美国更是长踞畅销书排行榜榜首。

Cyril Northcote Parkinson (July 30, 1909 - March 9, 1993) was a British historian and author of some sixty books. Besides his numerous works on British politics and economics, he also wrote historical fiction, often based on the Napoleonic period, and sea stories. He is most famous for his ridicule of bureaucratic institutions, notably his Parkinson's Law and Other Studies , a collection of short essays explaining the inevitability of bureaucratic expansion. As early as the 1930's, for example, Parkinson had successfully predicted that the Royal Navy would eventually have more admirals than ships.

帕金森第一次写小说的尝试,是以一位虚构的船长Horatio Hornblower为原型的一部“自传”,该书取得了相当的好评,并被归入到他之后的海洋冒险家Richard Delancey系列小说之中。

Parkinson's first fictional effort, a "biography" of fictional sea captain Horatio Hornblower, met with considerable acclaim and led to his series of books about seafaring adventurer Richard Delancey.

Biography: C. Northcote Parkinson

传记:C.斯诺古德 帕金森

当英国历史学家和讽刺小说作家C.斯诺古德 帕金森(1909-1993)在二战期间作为一名英国军队军官与1957年发表其评论(observations)“《帕金森定律》和其他随笔”之后,他可能并不会意识到,这本书的基本命题“只要还有时间,工作就会不断扩展,直到用完所有的时间。”会成为今天职场的一句真言。

When British historian and satirist C. Northcote Parkinson (1909 - 1993) published his observations from working as a British army staff officer during World War II in "Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays", in 1957, he might not have realized that its basic premise "work expands to fill the time available for its completion" would become a standard mantra describing modern business practices.

  C.诺斯古德 帕金森于1909年7月30日出生于英格兰Durham郡的Barnard Castle。他的父亲William Edward Parkinson是一名艺术家,他的母亲叫Rosemary Parkinson。他从1916年至1929年先后在约克郡的St.Olave's和St.Peter's完成基础教育,后进入剑桥大学的Emmanuel学院。

  帕金森在剑桥大学取得了文学学士的学位之后,进入伦敦大学的国王学院继续深造,并在那里与1935年取得了历史学博士学位。

  之后,帕金森返回到Emmanuel学院,于1935年至1938年在那里任教。继他在一所位于Devon郡Tiverton的男子私立学校Blundell取得了高级历史系主任的职位之后,他就离开了Emmanuel学院。

  1939年英国被卷入到二次大战之中,帕金森加入到位于Dartmouth的皇家海军学院。在他服役期间,他的主要工作是训练英国军官及皇家空军官兵,就在这个时期“帕金森定律”产生了。

Cyril Northcote Parkinson was born on July 30, 1909, at Barnard Castle, Durham, England. His father, William Edward Parkinson, was an artist, and his mother was Rosemary (Curnow) Parkinson. He attended school at St. Olave's and St. Peter's schools in York, England, from 1916 until 1929, when he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Parkinson received his bachelor of arts degree from Cambridge and then went on to King's College, University of London, where he earned a Ph.D. in history in 1935. Parkinson returned to Emmanuel College as a fellow and taught from 1935 until 1938, then left for a position as senior history master at Blundell's, a private school for boys located in Tiverton, Devon. When Great Britain entered World War II in 1939, Parkinson enlisted in the Royal Navy College at Dartmouth, England. It was during his wartime service, working in training and administration for the British War Office and the Royal Air Force, that his inspiration for Parkinson's Law was born. During the war he attained the rank of major as a member of the Queen's Royal Regiment of the British Army.Law Inspired by Military Bureaucracy Law Inspired by Military Bureaucracy

In an obituary in the New York Times, at Parkinson's death in March 1993, Richard W. Stevenson recalled a comment Parkinson once made to the London Times regarding his tenure in the British military: "I observed, somewhat to my surprise, that work which could be done by one man in peacetime , was being given to about six in wartime." He added that he thought that "this was mainly because there wasn't the same opportunity for other people to criticize" such a lack of economic efficiency, adding that, in the event of such criticism, someone would likely retort : "Don't you know there's a war on?" In an obituary in the New York Times, at Parkinson's death in March 1993, Richard W. Stevenson recalled a comment Parkinson once made to the London Times regarding his tenure in the British military: "I observed, somewhat to my surprise, that work which could be done by one man in peacetime , was being given to about six in wartime." He added that he thought that "this was mainly because there wasn't the same opportunity for other people to criticize" such a lack of economic efficiency, adding that, in the event of such criticism, someone would likely retort : "Don't you know there's a war on?"

Following the war, Parkinson became a lecturer of naval history at the University of Liverpool, where he stayed until 1950. At that point he left for Singapore to become Raffles Professor of History at the University of Malaya. Parkinson stayed in Singapore until 1958 during which time he produced his now-famous essay, which was first published in the British magazine Economist in 1955, submitted by its author as an anonymous essay. When he left Singapore, Parkinson traveled to the University of Illinois at Urbana, where he served as Visiting George A. Miller Professor of History for two years. In 1960 he took on another visiting professorship, this one a year-long position at the University of California, Berkeley. While he was living in California, Parkinson had by now become noted for his creation of Parkinson's Law, and California Governor Ronald Reagan asked the British professor to lecture "on the precise reasons why the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge's original repainting crew of 14 members grew to 72 once a labor-saving paint sprayer had been introduced," recalled Francis X. Clines in his interview with of Parkinson for the New York Times. Following the war, Parkinson became a lecturer of naval history at the University of Liverpool, where he stayed until 1950. At that point he left for Singapore to become Raffles Professor of History at the University of Malaya. Parkinson stayed in Singapore until 1958 during which time he produced his now-famous essay, which was first published in the British magazine Economist in 1955, submitted by its author as an anonymous essay. When he left Singapore, Parkinson traveled to the University of Illinois at Urbana, where he served as Visiting George A. Miller Professor of History for two years. In 1960 he took on another visiting professorship, this one a year-long position at the University of California, Berkeley. While he was living in California, Parkinson had by now become noted for his creation of Parkinson's Law, and California Governor Ronald Reagan asked the British professor to lecture "on the precise reasons why the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge's original repainting crew of 14 members grew to 72 once a labor-saving paint sprayer had been introduced," recalled Francis X. Clines in his interview with of Parkinson for the New York Times.

Writing to Fill the Time Writing to Fill the Time

In addition to his career as a professor of history, Parkinson was a prolific writer and published a number of books prior to releasing Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, in 1959. His expertise in naval history translated into the bulk of that work, and he was highly regarded as one of the foremost naval historians in Great Britain and throughout the fading British Empire. Some of Parkinson's early writings included Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934), Trade in the Eastern Seas, 1793 - 1813 (1937), The Trade Winds (1948), The Rise of the Port of Liverpool (1952), A Short History of Malaya (1954), and Heroes of Malaya (1956), the last volume with his second wife, Elizabeth Parkinson. In addition to his career as a professor of history, Parkinson was a prolific writer and published a number of books prior to releasing Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, in 1959. His expertise in naval history translated into the bulk of that work, and he was highly regarded as one of the foremost naval historians in Great Britain and throughout the fading British Empire. Some of Parkinson's early writings included Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934), Trade in the Eastern Seas, 1793 - 1813 (1937), The Trade Winds (1948), The Rise of the Port of Liverpool (1952), A Short History of Malaya (1954), and Heroes of Malaya (1956), the last volume with his second wife, Elizabeth Parkinson.

The publication of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, by Houghton Mifflin in 1957 marked a somewhat new direction for the historian. That the book was initially displayed in bookstores in the "Law," "Humor," or "Politics" sections never ceased to delight its author, as well as baffle him. In addition to his Economist essay on bureaucratic inefficiency, Parkinson also includes writings on such topics as why driving on the left side of the road - as is the habit in Great Britain - is natural. In his interview with Clines, Parkinson offered a brief chronicle of what the publicity of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays did for his career - in essence imbuing the academic with celebrity status for life. Clines noted that the then-78-year-old Parkinson, by the time of his New York Times interview living at Onchan, on the Isle of Man, was attempting to retire from the spotlight and quipped that his role as an "authority" on business practices following the publication of Parkinson's Law was a continuing source of humor to him. The publication of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays, by Houghton Mifflin in 1957 marked a somewhat new direction for the historian. That the book was initially displayed in bookstores in the "Law," "Humor," or "Politics" sections never ceased to delight its author, as well as baffle him. In addition to his Economist essay on bureaucratic inefficiency, Parkinson also includes writings on such topics as why driving on the left side of the road - as is the habit in Great Britain - is natural. In his interview with Clines, Parkinson offered a brief chronicle of what the publicity of Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays did for his career - in essence imbuing the academic with celebrity status for life. Clines noted that the then-78-year-old Parkinson, by the time of his New York Times interview living at Onchan, on the Isle of Man, was attempting to retire from the spotlight and quipped that his role as an "authority" on business practices following the publication of Parkinson's Law was a continuing source of humor to him.

Parkinson also recalled his mentor and hero, GK Chesterton, who had given him advice when he was a young man. At the time of his meeting with the British writer, Parkinson was slowly building his new law during lecture invitations, and as he traveled and observed people and their motivations. He found direction in Chesterton's example as a "literate Englishman and practicing essayist " who was active in English letters for much of his life. Parkinson recalled to Clines: "I met Chesterton when I was a young man and he was old, and it was from him that I derived the whole idea of conveying serious thoughts in the form of a joke. The humor made the whole thing more digestible and gave it great publicity." Parkinson also recalled his mentor and hero, GK Chesterton, who had given him advice when he was a young man. At the time of his meeting with the British writer, Parkinson was slowly building his new law during lecture invitations, and as he traveled and observed people and their motivations. He found direction in Chesterton's example as a "literate Englishman and practicing essayist " who was active in English letters for much of his life. Parkinson recalled to Clines: "I met Chesterton when I was a young man and he was old, and it was from him that I derived the whole idea of conveying serious thoughts in the form of a joke. The humor made the whole thing more digestible and gave it great publicity."

Life after the "Law" Life after the "Law"

After formulating his primary "law," Parkinson continued to be inspired to formulate expansions on his central theme, among them Mrs. Parkinson's Laws, which addresses the issues of household management in a similar way to those Parkinson addressed in business. By the late 1980s he was developing a new law, which he revealed to Clines as follows: "The chief product of a highly automated society is a widespread and deepening sense of boredom ." As Clines explained, "Parkinson has been studying a new generation busy with glyphs and dreams at their work computers, a tool which he declines to pick up." Parkinson cited as "proof" of his new law the example of of one resident of the Isle of Man, an office worker who had "measured an average work week of 56 hours, but found [himself] … happier for having to typically do three jobs: farming, carpentry , plus some tourism labors." Parkinson suggested that two days of manual labor in addition to the ever-increasing computer workload was the best preventive for boredom. He suggested that people are happiest when they are doing some kind of physical work. After formulating his primary "law," Parkinson continued to be inspired to formulate expansions on his central theme, among them Mrs. Parkinson's Laws, which addresses the issues of household management in a similar way to those Parkinson addressed in business. By the late 1980s he was developing a new law, which he revealed to Clines as follows: "The chief product of a highly automated society is a widespread and deepening sense of boredom ." As Clines explained, "Parkinson has been studying a new generation busy with glyphs and dreams at their work computers, a tool which he declines to pick up." Parkinson cited as "proof" of his new law the example of of one resident of the Isle of Man, an office worker who had "measured an average work week of 56 hours, but found [himself] … happier for having to typically do three jobs: farming, carpentry , plus some tourism labors." Parkinson suggested that two days of manual labor in addition to the ever-increasing computer workload was the best preventive for boredom. He suggested that people are happiest when they are doing some kind of physical work.

Parkinson wrote over 60 books during his life, with the majority of those nonfiction . However, he also used his humor and his background in naval history to set the literary world on end again when he published his "Richard Delancey" seafaring mystery novels, telling the story of the quick-witted Delancey's adventures when he enters the disorderly world of the Royal Navy. Throughout the popular six-book series readers have the opportunity to travel with Delancey to the Mediterranean, the East Indies, the Netherlands, and beyond and follow his remarkable adventures. Parkinson wrote over 60 books during his life, with the majority of those nonfiction . However, he also used his humor and his background in naval history to set the literary world on end again when he published his "Richard Delancey" seafaring mystery novels, telling the story of the quick-witted Delancey's adventures when he enters the disorderly world of the Royal Navy. Throughout the popular six-book series readers have the opportunity to travel with Delancey to the Mediterranean, the East Indies, the Netherlands, and beyond and follow his remarkable adventures.

Fictional Seafarer Biographies Proved Popular Fictional Seafarer Biographies Proved Popular

Two of Parkinson's novels, both fictional "biographies," followed somewhat the same path after publication as did Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays. Both The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower and Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman were shelved in bookstores in the "Biography" or, in the case of the Hornblower "biography," the "History" section, when in fact they are works of fiction. Two of Parkinson's novels, both fictional "biographies," followed somewhat the same path after publication as did Parkinson's Law, and Other Essays. Both The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower and Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman were shelved in bookstores in the "Biography " or, in the case of the Hornblower "biography," the "History" section, when in fact they are works of fiction.

When Parkinson published The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower in 1970, he based the book on the fictional 19th-century naval hero created by author CS Forester. Forester based his Hornblower character on actual reports from a variety of naval officers of the period and made him so realistic that many readers believed him to be a real person - in fact, the British National Maritime Museum often encountered visitors looking for the "Hornblower Papers." Similarly, Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman is based on the fictional butler created by popular British humorist PG Wodehouse and who is featured in a series of Wodehouse's novels. When Parkinson published The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower in 1970, he based the book on the fictional 19th-century naval hero created by author CS Forester. Forester based his Hornblower character on actual reports from a variety of naval officers of the period and made him so realistic that many readers believed him to be a real person - in fact, the British National Maritime Museum often encountered visitors looking for the "Hornblower Papers." Similarly, Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman is based on the fictional butler created by popular British humorist PG Wodehouse and who is featured in a series of Wodehouse's novels.

Parkinson's other books included another work of nautical fiction, 1990's Manhunt. In the area of naval history, he also authored Samuel Waters, Lieut. RN (1949), Britannia Rules (1977), and Gunpowder, Treason, and Plot (1978). Others books by Parkinson, which ranged from cultural commentary to more overt satire, include The Evolution of Political Thought (1958), The Law and the Profits (1960), In-Law and Outlaws (1962), Left Luggage (1967), and The Law of Delay (1970). Parkinson's other books included another work of nautical fiction, 1990's Manhunt. In the area of naval history, he also authored Samuel Waters, Lieut. RN (1949), Britannia Rules (1977), and Gunpowder, Treason, and Plot (1978). Others books by Parkinson, which ranged from cultural commentary to more overt satire, include The Evolution of Political Thought (1958), The Law and the Profits (1960), In-Law and Outlaws (1962), Left Luggage (1967), and The Law of Delay (1970).

Parkinson married three times during his life. His first wife was Ethelwyn Edith Graves, whom he married in 1943; that marriage was dissolved. Journalist and author Elizabeth Ann Fry became his second wife in September of 1952; and at the time of his death he was married to Iris Hilda Waters, his wife since 1985. Parkinson's children from his first marriage are Alison Barbara and Christopher Francis Graves; those from his second marriage are Charles Nigel Kennedy, Antonia Patricia Jane, and Jonathan Neville Trollope. Parkinson married three times during his life. His first wife was Ethelwyn Edith Graves, whom he married in 1943; that marriage was dissolved. Journalist and author Elizabeth Ann Fry became his second wife in September of 1952; and at the time of his death he was married to Iris Hilda Waters, his wife since 1985. Parkinson's children from his first marriage are Alison Barbara and Christopher Francis Graves; those from his second marriage are Charles Nigel Kennedy, Antonia Patricia Jane, and Jonathan Neville Trollope.

A Contemporary Authors contributor once noted of Parkinson: "Typical of his tongue-in-cheek satire on managerial bureaucracy is his estimation that the managerial ranks inevitably increase between 5.7 and 6.56 percent annually." "Other observations," the contributor added, "include his statement that the difference between a senior and a junior businessman is the time it takes for each to arrive at his office." Also described was Parkinson's insistence that he was really a satirist rather than a humorist . "A humorist," Parkinson explained, "… writes about wildly improbabl[e] things; but the whole point about me is that whatever I write is true. Nothing is dreamt up. It's how the world is actually organized." A Contemporary Authors contributor once noted of Parkinson: "Typical of his tongue-in-cheek satire on managerial bureaucracy is his estimation that the managerial ranks inevitably increase between 5.7 and 6.56 percent annually." "Other observations," the contributor added, "include his statement that the difference between a senior and a junior businessman is the time it takes for each to arrive at his office." Also described was Parkinson's insistence that he was really a satirist rather than a humorist . "A humorist," Parkinson explained, "… writes about wildly improbabl[e] things; but the whole point about me is that whatever I write is true. Nothing is dreamt up. It's how the world is actually organized."

Parkinson enjoyed a busy life of travel, writing, and teaching. He also found time for leisure activities, such as painting, theater, listening to radio, and watching television, and also enjoyed investigating castle ruins. He died on March 10, 1993, at a clinic near his home in Canterbury, England. Parkinson enjoyed a busy life of travel, writing, and teaching. He also found time for leisure activities, such as painting, theater, listening to radio, and watching television, and also enjoyed investigating castle ruins. He died on March 10, 1993, at a clinic near his home in Canterbury, England.

Early life and education Early life and education

The youngest son of William Edward Parkinson (1871-1927), an art master at North East County School and from 1913 principal of York School of Arts and Crafts, and his wife, Rose Emily Mary Curnow (born 1877), the young Parkinson attended St. Peter's School, York , where in 1929 he won an exhibition for studying history at Emmanuel College at the University of Cambridge , where he was graduated in 1932. As an undergraduate, Parkinson developed an interest in naval history , which he pursued when the Pellew family gave him access to family papers at the recently established National Maritime Museum , allowing him to write his first book, Edward Pellew , Viscount Exmouth, Admiral of the Red in 1934, then enrolled as a graduate student at King's College London , where he wrote his thesis on War in the Eastern Seas, 1793-1815 , which was awarded the Julian Corbett Prize in Naval History for 1935. The youngest son of William Edward Parkinson (1871-1927), an art master at North East County School and from 1913 principal of York School of Arts and Crafts, and his wife, Rose Emily Mary Curnow (born 1877), the young Parkinson attended St. Peter's School, York , where in 1929 he won an exhibition for studying history at Emmanuel College at the University of Cambridge , where he was graduated in 1932. As an undergraduate, Parkinson developed an interest in naval history , which he pursued when the Pellew family gave him access to family papers at the recently established National Maritime Museum , allowing him to write his first book, Edward Pellew , Viscount Exmouth, Admiral of the Red in 1934, then enrolled as a graduate student at King's College London , where he wrote his thesis on War in the Eastern Seas, 1793-1815 , which was awarded the Julian Corbett Prize in Naval History for 1935.

Academic and military career Academic and military career

While still a graduate student in 1934, Parkinson joined the Territorial Army as a member of the 22nd London Regiment (The Queen's) and commanded an infantry company at the jubilee of King George V in 1935. In the same year, Emmanuel College, Cambridge elected him a research fellow. While at Cambridge, he commanded an infantry unity of the Cambridge University Officers' Training Corps. While still a graduate student in 1934, Parkinson joined the Territorial Army as a member of the 22nd London Regiment (The Queen's) and commanded an infantry company at the jubilee of King George V in 1935. In the same year, Emmanuel College, Cambridge elected him a research fellow. While at Cambridge, he commanded an infantry unity of the Cambridge University Officers' Training Corps.

From 1938 to 1945, he held a succession of positions, first becoming senior history master at Blundell's School in Tiverton, Devon in 1938, then instructor at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth in 1939. In 1940, he was commissioned an Army captain in the Queen's Royal Regiment, which led to a range of staff and military teaching positions in Britain. In 1943, he married, Ethelwyn Edith Graves (born 1915), a nurse tutor at Middlesex Hospital, with whom he was to have two children. From 1938 to 1945, he held a succession of positions, first becoming senior history master at Blundell's School in Tiverton, Devon in 1938, then instructor at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth in 1939. In 1940, he was commissioned an Army captain in the Queen's Royal Regiment, which led to a range of staff and military teaching positions in Britain. In 1943, he married, Ethelwyn Edith Graves (born 1915), a nurse tutor at Middlesex Hospital, with whom he was to have two children.

Demobilized as an Army major in 1945, he was appointed lecturer in history at the University of Liverpool from 1946 to 1949. In 1950, he was appointed Raffles professor of history at the newly established University of Malaya in Singapore , and while there initiated an important series of historical monographs on the history of Malaya , publishing the very first of the series in 1960. A movement developed in the mid-1950s to establish two campuses, one in Kuala Lumpur and one in Singapore . Parkinson actively attempted to persuade the authorities to avoid dividing the university, but to maintain it to serve both Singapore and Malaya in Johor Bahru . His efforts were unsuccessful and the two campuses were established in 1959. The original Singapore campus, where Parkinson taught, later became the University of Singapore . Demobilized as an Army major in 1945, he was appointed lecturer in history at the University of Liverpool from 1946 to 1949. In 1950, he was appointed Raffles professor of history at the newly established University of Malaya in Singapore , and while there initiated an important series of historical monographs on the history of Malaya , publishing the very first of the series in 1960. A movement developed in the mid-1950s to establish two campuses, one in Kuala Lumpur and one in Singapore . Parkinson actively attempted to persuade the authorities to avoid dividing the university, but to maintain it to serve both Singapore and Malaya in Johor Bahru . His efforts were unsuccessful and the two campuses were established in 1959. The original Singapore campus, where Parkinson taught, later became the University of Singapore .

Parkinson and his wife divorced in 1952 and he married the writer and journalist Ann Fry (1921-1983), with whom he had two sons and a daughter. In 1958, while still in Singapore, Parkinson published his most famous work Parkinson's Law , a book that expanded upon a humorous article that he had first published in the Economist magazine in November 1955, satirizing government bureaucracies. The 100-page book, first published in the United States and then in Britain, was illustrated by Osbert Lancaster and became an instant best seller. This collection of short studies explained the inevitability of bureaucratic expansion, arguing that 'work expands to fill the time available for its completion'. Typical of his satire and cynical humour, the book included his famous discourse on color of the bikeshed , a note on why driving on the left side of the road (see road transport ) is natural, and suggested that the Royal Navy would eventually have more admirals than ships. After serving as visiting professor at Harvard University in 1958 and the University of Illinois and the University of California, Berkeley in 1959-60, he resigned his post in Singapore at the University of Malaya to become an independent writer and celebrity. To avoid high taxation in Britain, he moved to the Channel Islands and settled at St Martin's, Guernsey , where he purchased Les Caches Hall and later restored Annesville Manor. His writings from this period included a series of historical novels featuring a fictional naval officer from Guernsey , Richard Delancey, during the Napoleonic era . Parkinson and his wife divorced in 1952 and he married the writer and journalist Ann Fry (1921-1983), with whom he had two sons and a daughter. In 1958, while still in Singapore, Parkinson published his most famous work Parkinson's Law , a book that expanded upon a humorous article that he had first published in the Economist magazine in November 1955, satirizing government bureaucracies. The 100-page book, first published in the United States and then in Britain, was illustrated by Osbert Lancaster and became an instant best seller. This collection of short studies explained the inevitability of bureaucratic expansion, arguing that 'work expands to fill the time available for its completion'. Typical of his satire and cynical humour, the book included his famous discourse on color of the bikeshed , a note on why driving on the left side of the road (see road transport ) is natural, and suggested that the Royal Navy would eventually have more admirals than ships. After serving as visiting professor at Harvard University in 1958 and the University of Illinois and the University of California, Berkeley in 1959-60, he resigned his post in Singapore at the University of Malaya to become an independent writer and celebrity. To avoid high taxation in Britain, he moved to the Channel Islands and settled at St Martin's, Guernsey , where he purchased Les Caches Hall and later restored Annesville Manor. His writings from this period included a series of historical novels featuring a fictional naval officer from Guernsey , Richard Delancey, during the Napoleonic era .

After the death of his second wife in 1984, he married again in the following year to Iris Hilda Waters (d. 1994) and moved to the Isle of Man . After two years there, they moved to Canterbury , Kent , where Parkinson died in March 1993 at the age of 83. He was buried in Canterbury. After the death of his second wife in 1984, he married again in the following year to Iris Hilda Waters (d. 1994) and moved to the Isle of Man . After two years there, they moved to Canterbury , Kent , where Parkinson died in March 1993 at the age of 83. He was buried in Canterbury.

Published works Published works

Naval novel series (the Richard Delancey series) Naval novel series (the Richard Delancey series)

  • The Devil to Pay (1973) The Devil to Pay (1973)
  • The Fireship (1975) The Fireship (1975)
  • Touch and Go (1977) Touch and Go (1977)
  • Dead Reckoning (1978) Dead Reckoning (1978)
  • So Near, So Far (1981) So Near, So Far (1981)
  • The Guernseyman (1982) The Guernseyman (1982)

Other nautical fiction Other nautical fiction

  • Manhunt (1990)

Other fiction Other fiction

  • Ponies Plot (1965) Ponies Plot (1965)

Biographies of fictional characters Biographies of fictional characters

  • The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower (1970) The Life and Times of Horatio Hornblower (1970)
  • Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman (1979) Jeeves: A Gentleman's Personal Gentleman (1979)

Naval history Naval history

  • Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934) Edward Pellew, Viscount Exmouth (1934)
  • The Trade Winds, Trade in the French Wars 1793-1815 (1948) The Trade Winds, Trade in the French Wars 1793-1815 (1948)
  • Samuel Walters, Lieut. RN (1949) Samuel Walters, Lieut. RN (1949)
  • Trade in the Eastern Seas (1955) Trade in the Eastern Seas (1955)
  • British Intervention in Malaya, 1867-1877 (1960) British Intervention in Malaya, 1867-1877 (1960)
  • East and West (1963) East and West (1963)
  • Britannia Rules (1977) Britannia Rules (1977)
  • A Short History of the British Navy, 1776-1816 A Short History of the British Navy, 1776-1816
  • Portsmouth Point, The Navy in Fiction, 1793-1815 (1948) Portsmouth Point, The Navy in Fiction, 1793-1815 (1948)

Other non-fiction Other non-fiction

  • Parkinson's Law (1957) Parkinson's Law (1957)
  • The Evolution of Political Thought (1958) The Evolution of Political Thought (1958)
  • The Law and the Profits (1960) The Law and the Profits (1960)
  • In-Laws and Outlaws (1962) In-Laws and Outlaws (1962)
  • Parkinsanities (1965)
  • Left Luggage (1967) Left Luggage (1967)
  • Mrs. Parkinson's Law (1968) Mrs. Parkinson's Law (1968)
  • The Law of Delay (1970) The Law of Delay (1970)
  • The fur-lined mousetrap (1972) The fur-lined mousetrap (1972)
  • The Defenders, Script for a "Son et Lumière" in Guernsey (1975) The Defenders, Script for a "Son et Lumière" in Guernsey (1975)
  • Gunpowder, Treason and Plot (1978) Gunpowder, Treason and Plot (1978)

Audio recordings Audio recordings

  • Discusses Political Science with Julian H. Franklin (10 LPs) (1959) Discusses Political Science with Julian H. Franklin (10 LPs) (1959)

帕金森定律

  诺斯古德·帕金森通过长期调查研究,写了一本名叫《帕金森定律》的书,他在书中阐述了机构人员膨胀的原因及后果:一个不称职的官员,可能有三条出路。第一是申请退职,把位子让给能干的人;第二是让一位能干的人来协助自己工作;第三是任用两个水平比自己更低的人当助手。

  这第一条路是万万走不得的,因为那样会丧失许多权力;第二条路也不能走,因为那个能干的人会成为自己的对手;看来只有第三条路最适宜。于是,两个平庸的助手分担了他的工作,他自己则高高在上发号施令。两个助手既无能,也就上行下效,再为自己找两个无能的助手。如此类推,就形成了一个机构臃肿、人浮于事、相互扯皮、效率低下的领导体系。

  至上而下,一级比一级庸人多,第二条产生出机构臃肿的庞大管理机构。由于对于一个组织而言,管理人员或多或少是注定要增长的。那么这个帕金森定律,注定要起作用。也就是有这样一个公式:

  X=\left[ 100 (2KM+L)/YN \right]*100%

  其中K表示一个要求派助手从而达到个人目的人。从这个人被任命一直到他退休,这期间的年龄差别用L来表示。M是部门内部行文通气而耗费的劳动时数。N是被管理的单位。用这个公式求出的X就是每年需要补充的新职工人数。数学家们当然懂得,要找出百分比只要用X乘100,再除以去年的总数Y就可以了。不论工作量有无变化,用这个公式求出来的得数总是处在5.17-6.56%之间。

  显然,如此类推,就形成了一个机构重叠、人浮于事、互相扯皮、效率低下的领导体系。而且这个定律不仅在官场中出现,在很多组织中都能看到这样的帕金森现象。

  帕金森定律警示的道理

  帕金森定律告诉我们这样一个道理:不称职的行政首长一旦占据领导岗位,庞杂的机构和过多的冗员便不可避免,庸人占据着高位的现象也不可避免,整个行政管理系统就会形成恶性膨胀,陷入难以自拔的泥潭。这样就会在官场中形成类似的“鲜花”插在“牛粪”上的现象,鲜花就好比是那些公司中的领导职位,牛粪就是那些公司中平庸的领导者,而这种“牛粪”插在“鲜花”上的危害是极其大的。例如有一个水利局实行银行代发工资两个月后,职工们竟发现多出了34张“嘴”,有34名非水利局职工,却拥有水利局职工的工资帐户。后经查实,这多出的34张“嘴”都是水利局干部的亲属,其中21人是水利局副科级以上干部的子女亲属。这其中有含饴弄孙的老人,目不识丁的农妇,甚至还有9名是正在学习的大中专学生。宁夏西海固地区同心县,曾经是以“苦甲天下”而闻名的,但就是在哪里,这种帕金森现象十分常见,在同心县部分干部违法乱纪,有能力的人才得不到中用,而那些能力平庸的人又大量超编进入行政机构,致使这个国家级贫困县吃“皇粮”的人数畸形膨胀。冗员吃空了财政预算、补贴,就连专项资金也被挪用……这种“贫困的腐败”,引发了一连串的咄咄怪事——在这个仅有33万人口的贫困县里,吃“皇粮”者高达1.1万人,全县超编人员高达2800多人。让人匪夷所思的是,在这支超编大军中,有大批“拿着俸禄不上朝”的”挂职干部”,轮流上班的“轮岗干部”, 10来岁的“娃娃干部”,四五岁的“学龄前儿童干部”。县烈士陵园只有3座墓碑,但却供养着20名管理人员,难怪有人嘲讽是“20个活人守着3个死人”。机构、人员过多过滥而造成的效率低下,几乎成了一些地方的通病,而少数“懒和尚”当主持而产生的“食客者众”,更成了这些部门的“痼疾”。

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