鲍莫尔病

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(重定向自鲍莫尔成本病)

鲍莫尔病(Baumol's disease)或称鲍莫尔成本病(Baumol's cost disease,有时简称cost disease)

目录

什么是鲍莫尔病

  鲍莫尔病(Baumol's disease)是美国经济学家威廉·鲍莫尔在1967年一篇研究经济增长的论文中提出来的。他建立了一个两部门宏观经济增长模型,其中一个部门是“进步部门”(progressive sector),另外一个部门是“停滞部门”(nonprogressive sector,后来鲍莫尔常用stagnant sector),进步部门的生产率相对快速增长将导致停滞部门出现相对成本的不断上升。他认为,如市政府服务教育、表演艺术、饭店和休闲等很多服务部门都具有这一特征,整体上看,相对于制造业服务业劳动生产率更难以提高,正如在表演艺术市场上,三百年前的莫扎特四重奏要四个人演,三百年后依然要四个人!因而,随着制造业的生产率改进,服务业在整个经济中的比重反而上升了。

Baumol's cost disease

  Baumol's cost disease (also known as the Baumol Effect) is a phenomenon described by William J. Baumol and William G. Bowen in the 1960s. It involves a rise of salaries in jobs that have experienced no increase of labor productivity in response to rising salaries in other jobs which did experience such labor productivity growth. This goes against the theory in classical economics that wages are always closely tied to labor productivity changes.

  The rise of wages in jobs without productivity gains is caused by the necessity to compete for employees with jobs that did experience gains and hence can naturally pay higher salaries, just as classical economics predicts. For instance, if the music industry pays its musicians 19th century style salaries, the musicians may decide to quit and get a job at an automobile factory where salaries are commensurate to high labor productivity. Hence, musicians' salaries are increased not due to labor productivity increases in the music industry, but rather due to productivity and wage increases in other industries.

  The original study was conducted for the performing arts sector. Baumol and Bowen pointed out that the same number of musicians are needed to play a Beethoven string quartet today as were needed in the 1800s; that is, the productivity of Classical music performance has not increased. On the other hand, wages of musicians (as well as in all other professions) have increased greatly since the 19th century.

  In a range of businesses, such as the car manufacturing sector and the retail sector, workers are continually getting more productive due to technological innovations to their tools and equipment. In contrast, in some labor-intensive sectors that rely heavily on human interaction or activities, such as nursing, education, or the performing arts there is little or no growth in productivity over time. As with the string quartet example, it takes nurses the same amount of time to change a bandage, or college professors the same amount of time to mark an essay, in 2006 as it did in 1966.

  Baumol's cost disease is often used to describe the lack of growth in productivity in public services such as public hospitals and state colleges. Since many public administration activities are heavily labor-intensive there is little growth in productivity over time. As a result growth in the GDP will generate little more resources to be spent in public sector. Thus public sector production is more dependent on taxation level than growth in the GDP.

Effects, symptoms, and therapy

  Producers can react to wage inflation in a number of ways:

  • Decrease quantity/supply
  • Decrease quality
  • Increase price
  • Increase non-monetary compensation or employ volunteers
  • Increase total factor productivity

  In the case of education, the Baumol Effect has been used as at least partial justification for the fact that, in recent decades, college tuition has risen faster than the general rate of inflation.

  The reported productivity gains of the service industry in the late 1990s can be mostly attributed to total factor productivity. Providers decreased the cost of ancillary labor through outsourcing or technology. Examples include offshoring data entry and bookkeeping for health care providers, and replacing manually-marked essays in educational assessment with multiple choice tests that can be automatically marked (see Scantron).

  The total factor productivity treatment is not available to the performing arts sector, because the consumable good is the labor itself. Instead, it has been observed that increases in price of the performing arts has been offset by increases in standard of living and entertainment spending by consumers. The extent to which the other treatments have been employed is subjective.

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评论(共5条)

提示:评论内容为网友针对条目"鲍莫尔病"展开的讨论,与本站观点立场无关。
Zero (Talk | 贡献) 在 2019年6月1日 08:50 发表

鲍莫尔成本病(又称鲍莫尔效应)是威廉·鲍莫尔和威廉·鲍文在20世纪60年代描述的一种现象。它涉及到没有经历劳动生产率增长的工作的工资上涨,以此来应对经历劳动生产率增长的其他工作的工资上涨。这与古典经济学中工资总是与劳动生产率变化密切相关的理论背道而驰。

如古典经济学预测的那样,没有生产率提高的工作的工资上涨是由于有必要与有经验的工作竞争,因此自然可以支付更高的工资。例如,如果音乐产业支付音乐家19世纪风格的薪水,音乐家可能会决定辞职,在一家汽车工厂找一份与高劳动生产率相称的工作。因此,音乐家的工资增加不是因为音乐行业劳动生产率的提高,而是

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Zero (Talk | 贡献) 在 2019年6月1日 08:51 发表

而是由于其他行业的生产率和工资增长。

最初的研究是为表演艺术部门进行的。鲍莫尔和鲍文指出,今天演奏贝多芬弦乐四重奏需要的音乐家人数与19世纪时相同;也就是说,古典音乐表演的生产率没有提高。另一方面,自19世纪以来,音乐家(以及所有其他职业)的工资大幅增长。

在汽车制造业和零售业等一系列行业中,由于工具和设备的技术创新,工人的生产率不断提高。相比之下,在一些严重依赖人际交往或活动的劳动密集型行业,如护理、教育或表演艺术,随着时间的推移,生产率增长很少或没有增长。和弦乐四重奏的例子一样,护士更换绷带或大学教授需要同样的时间

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Zero (Talk | 贡献) 在 2019年6月1日 08:52 发表

教授们在2006年花了和1966年一样多的时间来标记一篇论文。

鲍莫尔成本病经常被用来描述公共服务部门,如公立医院和州立大学的生产力缺乏增长。由于许多公共管理活动是高度劳动密集型的,因此生产率几乎没有随着时间的推移而增长。因此,国内生产总值的增长不会产生更多用于公共部门的资源。因此,公共部门的生产更依赖于税收水平,而不是国内生产总值的增长。

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Zero (Talk | 贡献) 在 2019年6月1日 08:54 发表

生产者可以通过多种方式应对工资上涨:

减少数量/供应 降低质量 提高价格 增加非货币补偿或雇佣志愿者 提高全要素生产率 就教育而言,鲍莫尔效应至少被用作近几十年来大学学费上涨速度快于总体通胀率这一事实的部分理由。

据报道,20世纪90年代末服务业生产率的提高主要归因于全要素生产率。提供商通过外包或技术降低了辅助劳动力的成本。例子包括医疗保健提供者的离岸数据输入和簿记,以及用可自动标记的多项选择测试取代教育评估中的人工标记论文(见斯卡特伦)。

全要素生产率待遇不适用于表演艺术部门,因为消费品本身就是劳动力。相反,它做到了

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Zero (Talk | 贡献) 在 2019年6月1日 08:54 发表

相反,据观察,表演艺术价格的上涨被消费者生活水平和娱乐支出的提高所抵消。其他治疗的使用程度是主观的。

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