肯尼思·安德魯斯

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肯尼思·安德鲁斯(Kenneth R. Andrews)
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肯尼思·安德魯斯(Kenneth R. Andrews)
肯尼思·安德魯斯(Kenneth R. Andrews, 1916-2005),哈佛商學院教授、SWOT分析法的創始人。

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肯尼思·安德魯斯的簡介

  肯尼斯·安德魯斯(Kenneth R. Andrews, 1916-2005),美國著名學者,與伊戈爾·安索夫(H.igor Ansoff)以及艾爾弗雷德·D·錢德勒(Alfred D.Chandler,Jr.1918—2007)提出並普及了商業戰略或商業策略(business strategy)的概念。

肯尼斯·安德魯斯的著作

  肯尼斯·安德魯斯1937年在衛斯廉大學(Wesleyan University)取得英語言碩士學位,然後前往伊利諾伊大學厄巴納-香檳分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,UIUC)攻讀英語言博士學位。然而二戰爆發後,肯尼斯·安德魯斯入伍美國空軍服役。1946年,肯尼斯·安德魯斯入職哈佛商學院,教MBA學生管理實踐課程。肯尼斯·安德魯斯最終成為哈佛商學院HBS的商業政策研究課程小組的核心成員之一。

  1965年,具有廣泛影響力的《經營策略:內容與案例》一書出版,肯尼斯·安德魯斯被認為是此書正文部分的作者。1971年,此書的正文部分以肯尼斯·安德魯斯的名義單獨出版。20世紀80年代,以上兩本書都出版了若幹版本。

  肯尼斯·安德魯斯的商業戰略理念可能是最早應用於學院常規課程教學的,文獻資料《張伯倫的戰略理論》一書認為肯尼斯·安德魯斯是“最具影響力的戰略理念的作者”。雖然肯尼斯·安德魯斯提出了一系列戰略概念,但他卻沒有明確說明“戰略”是什麼。相反地,肯尼斯·安德魯斯說,他選擇“迴避關於列出目標、政策和行動計劃的問題”。而且,肯尼斯·安德魯斯並沒有聲明他是這些概念的創造者。值得一提的是,有些概念在1957年和1962年被菲利普·塞爾茲尼克(Philip Selznick)和艾爾弗雷德·D·錢德勒(Alfred D.Chandler提出來。

  肯尼斯·安德魯斯曾經對戰略作出如下規定,“戰略應當是由管理層特意和有意識地決定並加以適應的”。

  Harvard Business Review, and a beloved “master” of Leverett House (one of Harvard University’s undergraduate residences), died on Sunday, Sept. 4, at his home in Durham, N.H., after a brief illness. He was 89 years old and had also resided in Cambridge, Mass.

A member of the Harvard Business School faculty for forty years, Andrews retired from the active faculty in 1986. At the time of his death, he was the School’s Donald Kirk David Professor of Business Administration Emeritus.

A Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Wesleyan University, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in English in 1936 and a master’s in American literature a year later, Kenneth Richmond Andrews was pursuing a Ph.D. in English at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) when his studies were interrupted by World War II. Drafted into the service, he found himself at the Army Air Force's Statistical Control School, which was held on the HBS campus and taught by members of the School’s faculty. Andrews was impressed by the quality of the teaching; his instructors were equally impressed by the quality of his intellect.

With the end of the war, Andrews, who had risen in rank from private to major, returned to the University of Illinois in 1946 to complete his dissertation on Twain. Within a few months, however, he received a call from HBS professor Edmund Learned, offering the opportunity to join a multidisciplinary teaching group being formed at the School to teach a new course in organizational behavior called Administrative Practices. What clinched the deal in HBS’s favor was the opportunity for Andrews to also continue his research at Harvard’s Widener Library, which housed Twain’s private papers, and to complete his dissertation (which was published to critical acclaim in 1950 as Nook Farm: Mark Twain’s Hartford Circle).

Remaining at HBS after receiving his doctorate in 1948, Andrews not only taught MBA students and wrote case studies, but he undertook an exhaustive survey of the effectiveness of university and corporate executive training programs. But around the same time, another opportunity came his way that proved to be an inflection point in his career. He was asked to join a small group of other faculty reviewing the School’s required course in Business Policy, in which MBA students examined the problems of an entire company from the perspective of top management. Professorial input, however, was limited mainly to the personal perspectives of the senior faculty members who taught the course.

After more than two years, this group developed the concept of corporate strategy as the organizing principle of the course. Andrews put his mark on the project with an important series of case studies on the Swiss watch industry. As a result of these efforts, the Business Policy course underwent a complete revision and influenced the work of other professors’ course development as well in areas such as competitiveness and country and industry analysis. In addition to its impact on the HBS curriculum, this groundbreaking work also contributed to the rise of corporate strategy as a specialty in the management consulting industry.

During his career, Andrews held many leadership positions that were important in the life of both Harvard Business School and Harvard University. Besides heading the Business Policy course and chairing the General Management unit, he served as chairman of the School’s Advanced Management Program for senior executives from 1967 to 1970. While in this position, he submitted an influential report laying out objectives that guided the School’s expansion of its Executive Education portfolio from two programs to twelve during the 1970s.

“Ken Andrews’s contributions to Harvard Business School were enormous,” said HBS professor and strategy expert Joseph L. Bower. “With Professor C. Roland Christensen and others, Ken Andrews built the field of business policy, which laid the foundation for what we now think of as the field of strategy. He also dramatically improved the professionalism of our Advanced Management Program and transformed Harvard Business Review into a leading journal of business ideas. For me personally, he was a very wise and caring mentor, and I felt particularly honored to succeed him in the chair named after former Dean Donald David.”

In 1971, in the midst of considerable student unrest at Harvard and other universities, Harvard president Nathan Marsh Pusey appointed Andrews the master, or head, of Leverett House. It was an assignment that Andrews--with his wife, Carolyn, as Leverett’s first comaster—completed with great success over the next decade, easing the transition into coeducation and creating a sense of community in a large, ethnically diverse group of undergraduates.

After his move into Leverett House, Andrews began his long association with the Harvard Business Review (HBR), first as chairman of its editorial board from 1972 to 1979 and then as editor from 1979 to 1985. During this period, he became increasingly interested in the study of ethics and personal values in the workplace, encouraging contributions to the magazine on this topic from business practitioners. In 1989, he published “Ethics in Practice,” an HBR article that focused on developing managers as moral individuals, building an environment in which standards and values are central to the company's strategy, and formulating and implementing policies that support and sustain ethical performance. This effort soon led to the book Ethics in Practice: Managing the Moral Corporation, a collection of 21 Harvard Business Review articles he edited and for which he wrote the introduction. Under Andrews’s leadership, the magazine’s reputation and influence grew considerably, and by the time he stepped down, its worldwide circulation had grown to 240,000, with eleven foreign editions.

Throughout his career, Andrews was also active as a consultant, director, and trustee, working with a number of organizations, including the Harvard University Press; Wesleyan University; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; and Xerox Corporation.

He was the author of numerous articles on executive education, management development, corporate strategy, and corporate governance. In addition to his work on Twain, his books include The Effectiveness of University Management Development Programs (1966), which won the Society for Advancement of Management Book Award; Business Policy: Text and Cases (1965 and many other editions), and The Concept of Corporate Strategy (1971 and 1980), which won the McKinsey Foundation Book Award.

Andrews received an honorary master’s degree from Harvard University in 1957. He also received the Distinguished Service Award from Harvard Business School in 1990; the citation for that award read: "He understands, as Mark Twain never did, how business works best; his writings elucidate the complex subject to the benefit of his Harvard colleagues and of managers everywhere."

A voracious reader until his death and a New York Times crossword puzzle enthusiast, Andrews also found solace in the outdoors and developed a passion for gardening and boating.

He was married to Edith Platt from 1945 to 1969. She died in 2002. His marriage to Carolyn Erskine Hall lasted from 1970 until her death, also in 2002.

He is survived by a son, Ken Jr., of Marlborough, Mass.; a daughter, Carolyn, of Maynard, Mass.; three stepchildren, Lyn Hejinian of Berkeley, Cal., Douglas Hall of San Francisco, and Marie Katrak, of Durham, N.H.; six grandchildren; and nine great-grandchildren.

Services will be private.

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