俄罗斯航空公司

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俄罗斯航空公司(Aeroflot)
俄罗斯航空公司(Aeroflot) MICEX:AFLT ,RTS:AFLT 、天合联盟成员之一

俄罗斯航空公司官方网站网址:http://www.aeroflot.ru/

目录

俄罗斯航空公司简介

  俄罗斯民用航空总局(Aeroflot)即为俄国国家航空公司,(俄语:Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии,英语:RUSSIAN AIRLINES ,简称: 俄航 代码: SU)该公司为俄国最大航空公司,也是世界最大的机队,拥有81架的民航机机队,总部设于俄国首都莫斯科。

  俄罗斯航空公司创始于1992年7月,公司创始人是俄罗斯联邦政府,其中自己拥有51%的股份,49%由公司的员工拥有,其余由法定实体拥有。公司的最高管理者在一年一度的董事会主管召开的股东大会中产生。

  十年努力

  随着1991年前苏联的解体,众多发展机遇也随之而来,那时俄罗斯人关注的核心是必须将体制改革推向实效。在随后的几年里国家经济形势一直低落,但俄罗斯国际航空公司(Aeroflot)经历了十年的发展,已经成为体制改革成功的亮点。

  俄罗斯国际航空公司前身为"苏联民航",是前苏联早期大型非军事航空运输企业。在1994年3月公司的一架A310飞机坠毁,戏剧性的是公司的经营状况也随之跌入低谷。在后面的几个月,也就是俄罗斯航空运输业的安全落至最低点后,政府着手将该公司改制成为国家控股的航空公司--俄罗斯国际航空公司。

  在十年后的今天,俄罗斯国际航空公司拥有更加优秀的机队构成和强大的实力。西方先进的新型喷气式飞机的不断引进,使得这个前苏联时代的大型机队正逐步壮大,同时公司的经营也在向商业化方向迈进。特别值得注意的是,俄罗斯国际航空公司在最近还被邀请加入世界上第二大航空联盟--天合联盟(SkyTeam)。

  改革艰辛 步步为营

  以上这些成就在很大程度上都要归功于俄罗斯国际航空公司总经理欧库罗夫(Valeri Okulov)。欧库罗夫1997年上任,在加入公司董事会之前,他曾在俄罗斯国际航空公司训练中心工作,参加过飞行标准的制定和改进工作,并拥有丰富的飞行经验。

  事实上,在进行机构调整初期,公司还存在一定的"官僚主义",当时所推行的现代商业化改革进程稍显操之过急。欧库罗夫在刚刚接管公司时的想法是立即进行全面的调整,但很快就意识到犯了战略上的错误,正确的方式应该是分步进行、稳步推进,变革是需要一定时间的,特别是对那些已经固化成形的方面。

  详细分析 制定对策

  在对公司管理层进行调整方面,欧库罗夫聘请了亚历山大·祖拉博夫为财务总监(CFO)。当时祖拉博夫刚辞去其俄罗斯"梅纳蒂普银行(Menatep Bank)"行长兼CEO的职位,准备开创自己的银行,但他看重了在俄航工作的挑战性,因此出售了自己的公司,加盟俄罗斯国际航空公司,并担任第一副总经理一职。

  在祖拉博夫刚加盟俄航时,公司经济状况正处于危急关头,资金大量流失。公司运营的约150条航线中将近三分之二处于亏损甚至停飞状态。在欧库罗夫的支持下,祖拉博夫请麦肯锡管理咨询公司对公司状况进行了详细的研究并提出改革建议。

  在过去的4年里,麦肯锡公司为俄航提供了非常有益的帮助,使公司未来的发展更具有战略性眼光,并为公司提供了不少运营建议,帮助公司网罗合适的具有丰富航空行业经验的专业人员。2000年早期,俄航公司的管理人员草拟了一份发展计划,并在4月份得到了董事会认可,新计划包括三个要点:

  • 调整航线网络  调整后的航线网络将放弃60条航线,新增加少量其他航线,并将西方制造的飞机的日使用率从9小时增加到11小时。
  • 优化机队构成 俄航当时运营的机型种类繁多,仅A310就有3个不相同的型别,需要重新优化调整以降低成本。
  • 改进服务质量  俄航很快发现其所提供的服务的性价比很低,麦肯锡管理咨询公司提议,或者选择走低成本路线--尽管公司提供了机上的低费用服务,但是将不会选择这条路线;或者提供全面的服务。飞机头等舱和公务舱的载运率很低,平均只有30%,而当时通常的观点是尽量使后舱的载运率达到要求即可。

  分析航线需求

  在"9.11"事件过后,公司很快认识到航空运输业受到了长期的影响,但俄罗斯的运输业务没有受到像其他地区那么严重的影响,这对俄航是一个降低经营成本的机会。从目前公司对飞机的需求出发,俄航对机队的载运率和航线结构进行了检查,集中挑选有盈利的航线和适合运营的机型。

  以收入为出发点考虑,飞往西欧的大部分航线是比较重要的,航空公司决定在飞机规模上进行扩充,支持高频率的航线,并配备标准化设备,以吸引高端旅客。并在其中的一些航线,比如至伦敦、巴黎的航线,每周安排六种不同的机型。

Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M.
放大
Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-154M.

  调整机队构成

  机队的合理化改革早已成为公司优先考虑的问题,例如公司一旦确定在欧洲航线上使用110/150座的飞机,就会努力使之实现。作为国际著名承运商,俄航不希望像其他公司那样仅仅租还飞机,公司还有更宏远的计划

  以前俄航曾得到俄政府许可,免税购入27架飞机,总计节省44%的资金。现在又重新获得政府的批准使用该项许可。引进的西方机队由下列飞机组成:2架波音777,4架波音767-300ER,10架737-400,11架A310。

  俄罗斯国际航空公司对波音和空客的新机型都比较感兴趣,并同这两家制造公司谈判。共制订了4种可行方案--737NG加远程型767或A330-200;A320系列加远程型767或A330-200。最终的选择是18架中程A320系列飞机。

  俄航认为,已有的波音777机队规模太小,不能够达到运营的经济性要求,而且机队的实践经验还不足,仅在莫斯科到北京和德里这两条航线达到较好的载运率。因此公司决定引入更小型的飞机,用于更高频率的商务乘客航班。俄航认为带有44个商务舱座位、188个经济舱座位的767-300ER型飞机,比更大一些的A330-200更合适,已在两年前签订了订购合同。俄航否认选择购买波音767是受到国际政治因素的影响,而是认为该型飞机的性价比高,公司机队中已有4架767飞机,运营良好,物有所值,因此作出了增购 5架的决定。

  通过降低财政支出,紧缩运营、训练以及降低新机型的维护成本,再加上使用机型的减少,俄罗斯国际航空公司每年可节约资金约10亿美元,这个数字约占航空公司运营成本的9%,占2002年运营收入的8%。

  为获得政府批准,免税购入西方飞机,公司也同意按照政府的要求使用俄制机型。现已经运营有6架伊尔-96-300型飞机,并且又另外订购了6架。但目前俄罗斯飞机制造工业的能力因严重的资金不足,将使交付时间延迟。

  同以往俄罗斯国际航空公司只能被动地接受制造商提供的产品的情况相比,如今用俄航的话说是航空公司掌握着主动权。

  培训工作紧随其后

  俄罗斯国际航空公司在其大本营莫斯科的谢列梅杰沃机场(Sheremetyevo)设有一个专门的训练培训中心。飞行员从驾驶前苏联时期的飞机转到驾驶现代西方的飞机必须经过培训。

  首先是驾驶体制的改变,由原来苏式飞机的五人机组,换成西方机型的两人机组。大多数人都能顺利通过培训,但在某些情况下需要花费一定的时间。原来的领航员和随机工程师在经过详细的飞行员培训后,就可以担当副驾驶员。

  俄罗斯国际航空公司对俄罗斯本国或外国的各型飞机都使用同样的标准。该标准是与欧洲的《联合航空使用条例》及美国的《联邦航空条例》等规定相匹配的。

  训练中心将很快新增一台CAE公司的A320模拟器,同A310模拟器以及伊留申和图波列夫研制的设备联合在一起使用。在去年7月份培训中心获得JAR-Ops认可,同法国检验机构一起制定JAR人员执照标准。

  此外,训练中心还培训了大约600名的空乘人员,并确立了雄伟的目标,赶超世界先进航空公司的服务水平。

  航站楼设施建设

  俄罗斯国际航空公司对其所在大本营的机场服务问题比较关注,谢列梅杰沃机场是公司的飞行基地,但其基础设施建设制约了公司的发展。

  这个问题已经促使航空公司决定为自己和合作伙伴建立新型航站大楼,并计划在2007年投入使用。在新型航站大楼工作的所有员工都将在训练中心接受专门的乘客服务训练,目前公司正在根据国际专家以及公司派驻各地的代表的建议设置培训课程

  拓展货运市场

  俄罗斯国际航空公司决定不将商业货运作为一个独立项目运作,超过50%的货物将由机腹载运。而如果货运部门独立,将会获得更大的利润。

  俄航计划在未来的三年里将货运量增加25%,稍高于分析师预测的20%。公司2003年的货运量为11万吨,比2002年增长4.4%。

  为了支持货运计划,俄罗斯国际航空公司将在2005~2006年再购入两架MD-11型货机。如果在2006年,DC-10型飞机仍达不到欧洲的噪声和环境排放标准,机队中现有的DC-10F型飞机也将由MD-11型飞机代替。如果这样,从2006年开始,俄航货运机队将由6架MD-11组成。

  同时公司也在考虑租用6架崭新的图-204型飞机,但是考虑到同租赁方谈判的拖延,这些飞机最早只能在2007年交付。公司已经为其航空货运制定了全面的发展战略,将货运业务确定为二级重点项目。

  建立宏伟目标

  俄罗斯国际航空公司设立了积极的发展目标,计划在下一个五年里不论是载客量还是收费客公里(RPK)都将增长一倍。在1998年俄航约亏损1.1亿美元,但是在2001年则获得了少量的盈利,并且在2002年的盈利超过了0.9亿美元,公司预计将保持这样持续发展的势头。加入天合联盟,将使得俄罗斯国际航空公司在收入和运量上获益不少,并且公司的运营标准也将得以提高。

  俄罗斯国际航空公司的运营者在俄罗斯商业标准发展方面是处于领导地位的,特别是在质量和透明度方面。虽然还有很多事情需要解决,事实证明俄航已经迈出了重大的一步,今日之俄航同十年前相比已经大不相同了。

历史

  In 1921, shortly after the end of the Russian Civil War, the new government established the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet to oversee new air transport projects. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs (Deruluft), a joint German-Russian venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when the Dobrolyot society was established on 9 February 1923. It started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. On 25 February 1932 all civil aviation activities were consolidated under the name of Grazhdanskiy Vozdushnyy Flot (Civil Air Fleet), known simply as Aeroflot. International flights started in 1937; before that date they had been carried out by Deruluft.

  By the end of the 1930s Aeroflot had become the world's largest airline, employing more than 400,000 people and operating around 4,000 aircraft. It became the first airline in the world to operate sustained regular jet services on 15 September 1956 with the Tupolev Tu-104.

  During the Soviet era Aeroflot was synonymous with Russian civil aviation. One of the rare examples of Soviet commercial advertisement was Aeroflot's slogan, "Fly on the planes of Aeroflot!"("Летайте самолетами Аэрофлота!"). The irony was that Aeroflot had no competitors and it was virtually impossible for an average Soviet citizen to fly on a non-Aeroflot plane. The advertisement was intended to entice people into using Aeroflot instead of cheaper though much slower long-distance trains.

  In January 1971 the Aeroflot Central Administration of International Air Traffic was established within the framework of IATA, and became the industry's sole enterprise authorised to operate international flights. Abroad, the airline was known as Aeroflot Soviet Airlines. In 1976 Aeroflot carried its 100 millionth passenger. Its flights were mainly concentrated around the Soviet Union, but the airline also had an international network covering five continents: North and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The network included countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Spain, Cuba, Mexico, and People's Republic of China. Since the 1970s some transatlantic flights were flown using Shannon Airport in Ireland as an intermediate stop, as it was the westernmost non-NATO airport in Europe.

  Aeroflot also performed myriad other functions, it provided Aeromedical, crop-dusting, heavy lifting for the Soviet Space Agency (see Soviet Space Program), offshore oil platform support, exploration for natural resources, support for construction projects, transport of military troops and supplies (as an adjunct to the Soviet Air Force), atmospheric research, remote area patrol, but to name a few. It operated hundreds of helicopters and cargo aircraft in addition to civil airliners.It also operated the Soviet equivalent of Air Force One and other VIP transports of government and communist party officials. Aeroflot joined IATA in 1989.

  Aeroflot service to and from the United States was interrupted from September 15, 1983 until August 2, 1990 following an executive order by U.S. President Ronald Reagan revoking Aeroflot's license to operate flights into and out of the United States. (See Korean Air Flight 007 for more information). At the start of the 1990s Aeroflot reorganised again giving more autonomy to territorial divisions.

  In 1992 it was divided into more than 300 regional airlines. International routes were operated separately as Aeroflot - Russian International Airlines (ARIA). Some airline companies which were created from the old Aeroflot are now flag carriers of the newly independent countries of the CIS — e.g., Uzbekistan Airways. Smaller regional airlines which emerged out of the old Aeroflot — sometimes just one-plane operations — were sometimes referred to as Babyflots.

  In 1994 Aeroflot was registered as a joint stock company and the government sold off 49% of its stake to Aeroflot employees. During the 1990s Aeroflot was primarily focused on international flights from Moscow. However, by the end of the decade Aeroflot started an expansion in the domestic market. In 2000 the company name was changed to Aeroflot — Russian Airlines to reflect the change in the company's strategy.

现状

  Aeroflot has been working towards redefining itself as a safe and reliable airline, hiring British consultants for rebranding at the beginning of the 2000s.[citation needed] A new livery and uniforms for flight attendants were designed and a promotional campaign launched in 2003.

  Plans were afoot to get rid of the old Soviet-era logo complete with hammer and sickle, which some people in the West treat as a reminder of the old Soviet era. However, a customer survey showed that this was the most recognizable symbol of the company, and it was decided to keep it.

目前俄航标志
放大
目前俄航标志

  Aeroflot has also upgraded its fleet of western-built aircraft. It has a total of 24 A320/A319 jet planes for short-haul flights in Europe and 11 Boeing 767 planes for long-haul routes. The total number of planes is 93. It carried 5.9 million passengers in 2003.

  In the spring of 2004 the airline started an aggressive expansion on the domestic market aiming to gain 30% share by 2010 (as of 2006 it holds approximately 9%). The first task was to outperform one of its major rivals S7 Airlines, the leader in the Russian domestic market. On July 29, 2004 the company adopted a new corporate slogan: "Sincerely Yours. Aeroflot".

  On April 14 2006 Aeroflot became the first air carrier in the former Soviet Union to join a global alliance (SkyTeam; another option was entry into Star Alliance). The airline will also get its own terminal at Sheremetyevo International Airport known as Sheremetyevo terminal 3 which will be finished by November 2007.

  The company has announced its plan to increase cargo operations. It registered the "Aeroflot Cargo" trademark in 2004.[citation needed] There is also a plan to replace the cargo fleet of four DC-10s with six MD-11s starting in late 2007.

  The airline is owned (as of March 2007) by the Russian Government via Rosimushchestvo (51.17%), National Reserve Corporation (27%) and employees and others (19%) and has 14,900 employees.

  In 2006 Aeroflot carried 7,290,000 passengers and 145,300 tons of mail and cargo to 89 destinations in 47 countries.

  In May 2007, Aeroflot offered a bid to buy the Serbian airline Jat Airways from the Serbian government. The government has been searching for many years for ways to privatize the Serbian airline, and to this date Aeroflot's bid for Jat is the largest one yet. Aeroflot says that they would plan to invest up to $450 million USD on Jat, over half of the money would be going to purchasing newer short-haul aircraft for the aging fleet. Air India is the only airline that is also in the race for bidding to purchase Jat.

  Accordingly, in the past couple of years, Aeroflot has seen a significant financial improvement, both seen in its earning and number of passengers carried. The net profit of the company reached $309.4 million (RUB 7.98 billion) in 2006, a 32.3% increase from 2005 earnings of only $2.34 billion (RUB6.03 billion). The revenue for the same 2005-2006 period rose by 13.5% to reach $2.77 billion with a 8.7% gain in passenger numbers.

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