菲利普·威克斯蒂德

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菲利普·威克斯蒂德(P. H. Wicksteed)
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菲利普·威克斯蒂德(P. H. Wicksteed)
菲利普·威克斯蒂德(Philip Henry Wicksteed) --- 英國經濟學家

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菲利普·威克斯蒂德簡介

  菲利普·威克斯蒂德(25 October 1844 – 18 March 1927)畢業於倫敦大學,畢業後於1874年開始擔任一個街道教會的牧師,併在此後的20年裡成為此教派的領導人物。他的學術愛好非常廣泛,對文學、哲學、社會學等都有興趣且均有建樹,還是當時極有名氣的中世紀史學家。

Philip Henry Wicksteed is known primarily as an economist. He was also an English Unitarian theologian (son of a Unitarian clergyman), classicist, medievalist, and literary critic.

Wicksteed was educated at University College, London and Manchester New College. In 1867 he received his master's degree with a gold medal in classics. Following his father into the Unitarian ministry in 1867, Wicksteed embarked on an extraordinarily broad range of scholarly and theological explorations.

His theological and ethical writings continued long after he left the pulpit (in 1897), and appear to have been a starting-point for many of his other fields of scholarly inquiry. These included his interest in Dante, which not only produced a remarkable list of publications, but also built Wicksteed's reputation as one of the foremost medievalists of his time. It was Wicksteed's theologically-driven interest in and concern for the ethics of modern commercial society, with its disturbing inequalities of wealth and income, which appear to have led him into his economic studies (following on his reading of Henry George's 1879 Progress and Poverty[1]).

Perhaps it was just by circumstance that economics entered Wicksteed's field of scholarly vision, as only one of a number of areas of his interest (to most of which he was committed for years before he began his Economics) and in the middle of the fourth decade of his life. This led Joseph Schumpeter to remark that Wicksteed “stood somewhat outside of the economics profession”.

Yet, within a few years Wicksteed was to publish significant economic work of his own, carefully expounding on the theory he learned from Jevons, and to become for many years a lecturer on economics for the University of London Extension Lectures (a kind of adult-education program initiated in the 1870s to extend “the teaching of the universities, to serve up some of the crumbs from the university tables, in a portable and nutritious form, for some of the multitude who had no chance of sitting there”).

In 1894, Wicksteed published his celebrated An Essay on the Co-ordination of the Laws of Distribution[2], in which he sought to prove mathematically that a distributive system which rewarded factory-owners according to marginal productivity would exhaust the total product produced. But it was his 1910 The Common Sense of Political Economy[3] which most comprehensively presents Wicksteed's economic system.

University College Library contains correspondence between Wicksteed's wife, Emily and Maria Sharpe Pearson, the wife of Karl Pearson (Helga Hacker papers)

菲利普·威克斯蒂德的主要著作

  • 《分配規律的同位論》(An Essay on the Coordination of the Laws of Distribution,1894)
  • 《政治經濟學常識》(The Common Sense of Political Economy,1910)

  1887年,出於對學術研究的熱忱他辭去牧師職務,專心從事經濟學的研究與著述,但是他的第一本著作《分配規律的同位論》(An Essay on the Coordination of the Laws of Distribution, 1894)卻只賣出了兩本。他的代表作《政治經濟學常識》(The Common Sense of Political Economy, 1910)曾受到洛桑學派第二代掌門、曾做過義大利一家鐵路公司經理、瓦爾拉斯的傳人、被後人稱之為福利經濟學之父的帕雷托埃奇沃斯的高度評價與贊賞。

參考文獻

  1. Ian Steedman (1987). Philip Henry Wicksteed.The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, pp. 919-15.
  2. Philip H. Wicksteed (1910, 2nd ed., 1933, 2 v.,The Common Sense of Political Economy: Including a Study of the Human Basis of Economic Law, London: Macmillan.-reprinted in 1933, L. Robbins, ed., Clifton NJ: Augustus M. Kelley Publishers
  3. The Alphabet of Economic Science, New York City NY: Kelley & Millman, Inc.1955
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