美国哈利伯顿公司

出自 MBA智库百科(http://wiki.mbalib.com/)

(重定向自Halliburton Co.)
美国哈利伯顿公司(Halliburton)
全球最大的油田服务供应商:美国哈利伯顿公司(Halliburton)

美国哈利伯顿公司网站:http://www.halliburton.com/ 英文

目录

美国哈利伯顿公司简介

  哈利伯顿公司成立于1919年,是世界上主要的能源服务公司之一。1993年公司将所有的油田服务机构合并,组建了哈利伯顿能源服务部,为油气田勘探、开发和钻井提供设备和服务,该公司大约1/2的业务在国外开展。下属有两大作业集团:布朗·鲁特能源服务集团、哈利伯顿能源服务集团,公司业务由这2 家公司经营。1995年营业收入为26亿美元。雇员人数为2万人。

  哈利伯顿能源服务集团(Halliburton Energy Services):在油气勘探、开发及开采的作业服务和提供设备方面位于世界领先地位。1921年即在固井作业方面独占鳌头;1949年进行的水力压裂作业开商业性增产措施作业之河;在定向钻井、完井作业、测井、油井测试、射孔和井控等方面也名列前茅。在60多个国家设立了约300多家服务中心,目前业务覆盖产层评价、钻井、完井、采油和油气井维护等。

  主要作业地区:北海、中东、南美洲、非洲、远东、中国和前苏联。

  2007年哈利伯顿公司将“迁都”阿拉伯联合酋长国的迪拜,目的是为了在中东获取更多的石油合同。该公司同时宣布,其法律注册地仍将保留在美国。

哈利伯顿公司说,这一变动基于公司2006年公布的新战略方针,旨在加强与中东地区的联系。诺克罗斯说:“首席执行官的工作自然是世界性的。他将对我们全球范围内的股东客户和职员继续保持用心的态度……首席执行官在迪拜工作,可以更好关注东半球的增长,这具有积极的商业意义。”

  哈利伯顿公司是北美地区乃至世界范围内的能源巨头,美国副总统迪克·切尼曾于1995年至2000年担任该公司首席执行官。公司在伊拉克重建等项目中获得了巨额合同。不过近来哈利伯顿公司深受美国政府调查影响。美国司法部与证券和交易委员会一直在调查公司在伊拉克、科威特和尼日利亚的一些项目,

  哈利伯顿公司去年盈利23亿美元,其中60%来自北美地区。但最近几年,该公司逐渐转移重心,在亚非发展中国家开展的业务数量明显增加。

哈利伯顿经营管理

  哈利伯顿目前是全球最大的石油与能源行业最大产品与服务提供商之一。该公司能围绕油气田的整个寿命周期提供增值服务,从油气的勘探、开发、生产、经营、维护、转换和炼制,到基础设施建设乃至油气田的遗弃,在整个油气链上提供产品和服务。目前,哈利伯顿拥有员工85000人,业务遍及全球100多个国家和地区。

1、成长历程

  哈利伯顿最初的历史源于1919年,冒险家埃尔勒·哈利伯顿当年在美国俄亥拉荷马创办了新方法石油固井私人公司。与此同时,布朗兄弟乔治和赫曼与其表哥路特合伙在美国德克萨斯成立了布朗·鲁特合伙公司(Brown & Root)。

  到1957年埃尔勒·哈利伯顿去世,哈利伯顿已在全美22个州和世界20个国家建立了201个办公室。5年后的1962年,赫曼去世,哈利伯顿公司也在同年收购了布朗·路特合伙公司。其时,布朗·鲁特合伙公司已成长为一家知名的道路建设公司、总承包商,并在1947年建成了世界首座海上平台。

  1998年,哈利伯顿与爵瑟工业公司合并,爵瑟是油气行业一家综合服务与项目管理的提供者,于1880年由发明家索罗门·爵瑟创办,他以拥有的球形包装专利开办了油田产品制造业务,经过20世纪上半叶石油勘探开发的繁盛时期,爵瑟工业公司成长为能源行业一家主要产品与服务提供者。1988年,爵瑟收购了科洛格公司,该公司是莫瑞斯·科洛格于1900年创办的管道制造公司,科洛格创造了石油炼制与石化加工技术,并基于这些技术建造相应的设施。在与爵瑟合并后,哈利伯顿也相应获得了科洛格公司的技能。

  由此可见,哈利伯顿自1919年创立以来,通过内部增长和外部收购获得了空前发展。主要收购包括1962年对布朗·鲁特公司的整体购买,发展了其工程与建造业务;1998年对爵瑟工业公司的购买,发展了其综合服务、项目管理、石油炼制和化工加工、技术、工程及建设业务。

  到2001年,哈利伯顿全球收入达到130亿美元。当然在此过程中,哈利伯顿也在不断调整其公司定位业务战略,包括大量的资产出售和业务剥离

  例如,自1962年以来,哈利伯顿在组织和整体业务上做了三次大的调整,以适应业务扩展后新的管理挑战、环境变化的适应性和业务流程总综合要求。该公司曾先后将其下的非核心业务,如保险公司、通信公司整体出售,以强化核心业务和加强服务综合。

2、业务结构与演进

  现今的公司业务结构是在其最新一次的重组基础上形成的。2002年3月,哈利伯顿完成了新一轮战略重组,将其全部业务划分为两部分,即哈利伯顿能源服务集团和KBR集团。这是两个相互独立、也与哈利伯顿总部相对独立的公司实体,哈利伯顿拥有100%的所有权。重组后的两大集团,可以更好地在全球范围加强各自的业务和有效地与同业竞争,从而提升哈利伯顿获得长期持续增长和盈利的能力

  哈利伯顿能源服务集团为世界范围的油气上游客户提供广泛的产品和服务,包括钻井和其它井筒工具制造,完井工具制造,到海底工程及柔性管道制造。哈利伯顿能源服务集团拥有哈利伯顿能源服务公司、兰德马克绘图公司、井筒公司,并有合资企业Bredero-Shaw、Enventure、Well Dynamics 和哈利伯顿海底公司。

  KBR,即工程建设集团,服务于能源行业的中游和下游,包括设计和建造液化天然气厂、炼制与加工厂、生产设施、陆上和海底管线。同时,还从事非能源方面的工程建设,包括政府投资的公共设施与民用商业设施。KBR下辖政府经营、基础设施、陆上经营、海上经营以及经营与维护等分公司

3、公司的管治结构

  哈利伯顿是一家公众上市公司,执行现代股份制的管治结构。其下属的能源服务集团和工程建设集团,由于已经实行分治,也具备分别独立上市的条件。

4、公司的市场战略

  哈利伯顿将自己定位为能源行业服务的提供者,它并不拥有勘探矿区、不拥有开发矿权、不拥有油气,但却能在能源链的每一环节、尤其是油气链的各环节提供服务。它不仅由油田技术服务和工程建设公司转变为综合的能源服务公司,而且借助于强大的技术实力、信息技术和网络,实现综合、实时的服务,大大提高服务效率和市场竞争力

History

1910s

In 1919, Erle Halliburton starts New Method Oil Well Cementing Company.[1]

1920s

In 1920, Erle Halliburton brings wild gas well under control, using cement, for W.G. Skelly, near Wilson, Oklahoma.[2]

On March 1, 1921, the Halliburton “method and means of excluding water from oil wells” is assigned a patent from the U.S. Patent Office. Halliburton invents the revolutionary cement jet mixer, to eliminate hand-mixing of cement, and the measuring line, a tool used to guarantee cementing accuracy.[2]

In 1922, Company prospers from Mexia, Texas, oil boom, cementing in 500th well in late summer.[3]

In 1924, Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company is incorporated in Delaware, with 56 people on payroll. Stock of the corporation was owned by Erle and Vida Halliburton and by seven major oil companies: Magnolia, Texas, Gulf, Humble, Sun, Pure and Atlantic.[4]

In 1926, First foreign venture begins with sale of equipment to Burma and India.[5]

In 1927, The Halliburton first motor-powered cementing unit goes into the field.[3]

In 1928, H.C. Otis founder of Otis Engineering (now part of Halliburton) gains industry recognition by replacing an inoperative single master valve on a flowing well.[3]

In 1929, Halliburton constructs first laboratory to test cement. Crews and equipment move into Canadian oil fields.[4]

1930s

In 1934, Halliburton performs a 3,000-sack cement job at Binger, Oklahoma. Halliburton introduces three-pump steam-type cementing unit.[3]

In 1935, Halliburton performs first acidizing job in Kansas.[6]

In 1936, Halliburton forms its electric wireline department, which is later merged with Welex in 1957.[7]

In 1938, Halliburton cements the first offshore well using a truck on a barge off the Louisiana coast.[5]

1940s

In 1940, Halliburton opened offices in Venezuela and introduces bulk handling of cementing to the industry.[4]

In 1947, the Halliburton first marine cementing vessel goes into service.[2]

In 1949, Halliburton pioneers hydraulic fracturing stimulation with the industry’s first commercial stimulation job.[8]

1950s

In 1951, Halliburton made its first appearance in Europe as Halliburton Italiana SpA., a wholly owned subsidiary in Italy. In the next seven years, Halliburton launched Halliburton Company Germany GmbH, set up operations in Argentina and established a subsidiary in England. By 1951, HOWCO had service centers operating in Canada, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia. [3]

In 1952, Halliburton revenues top $100 million for the first time. [3]

In 1953, Erle P. Halliburton is induced into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame. [3]

In 1954, by year’s end, HOWCO employs more than 7,500 employees worldwide. [3]

In 1955, a new 52,000-square-foot machine stop is completed in Duncan. It is, at the time, the largest non-defense plant in Oklahoma. [3]

In 1956, a large marine base to serve the Gulf of Mexico offshore industry is placed into operation at Venice, Louisiana. The Dyna-Drill downhole motor (now part of Halliburton Energy Services through the acquisition of Smith International Inc.’s drilling systems business) is introduced to the drilling industry. [3]

In 1957, the company introduces the HT-400 pump, the most powerful of its time, for fracturing and cementing. Erle P. Halliburton dies in Los Angeles at the age of 65. HOWCO worth $190 million with camps all over the world. HOWCO purchases Welex, which pioneered jet perforation. [3]

In 1958, Halliburton cements a record 25,340-foot well in West Texas. Otis Engineering introduces a mobile hydraulic workover unit that significantly increases the speed and safety of remedial work on high-pressure wells. [3]

In 1959, HOWCO acquires Otis Engineering, an oilfield service and equipment company specializing in manufacturing pressure control equipment for oil and gas producing wells. [3]

1960s

On July 5, 1961, the company changes its name to the Halliburton Company. In 1961, Halliburton averages 500 service jobs every day. Halliburton Services unveils FracPlan, a method of precalculating the most desirable means and materials to use in fracturing a well. [3]

In 1962, Otis Engineering begins offering pumpdown or through flowline (TFL) service for highly deviated wellbores or subsea locations. On December, 1962, Halliburton acquires Brown & Root (engineering and construction company). [3]

In 1963, Halliburton is the first company in Oklahoma to receive the Presidential “E” for Export flag in recognition of notable contributions to foreign trade. [3]

In 1964, Halliburton completes a 500,000-sq.-ft. manufacturing center in Duncan, Oklahoma. [3]

In 1965, Halliburton begins pilot operation of a computer network system – the first such installation in the oilfield services industry. [3]

In 1966, Workers break ground for a new wing at the Research Center in Duncan that triples the space for the Chemical Research and Design Department. [3]

In 1967, Baroid invents invert emulsion fluids. [3]

In 1968, an automated missing system for drilling mud is developed by Halliburton, primarily for use offshore. [3]

In 1969, Halliburton begins construction of a base camp at Prudhole Bay on Alaska’s North Slope. [3]

1970s

In 1970, Halliburton cements the world’s longest string of 20-inch casing with more than 11,300 sacks of cement. [3]

In 1971, Otis Engineering begins offering well testing services and marketing a package concept of well completions which includes packers, tubular products and flow controls. [3]

In 1972, Halliburton performs deepest hydraulic fracturing stimulation to date on a 22,400-foot well with pressures in excess of 10,000 psi. [3]

In 1973, Halliburton performs its deepest hydraulic fracturing job to date. [3]

In 1974, Gearhart Industries (now part of Halliburton Energy Services) introduces the first digital computer logging system. [3]

In 1975, Halliburton responds to 1970s’ environmental concerns by working with the nonprofit Clean Gulf Associates to contain and clean up oil spills. [3]

In 1976, Halliburton establishes the Halliburton Energy Institute in Duncan, Oklahoma, to provide an industry forum for disseminating technical information. [3]

In 1977, Otis Dillon, first-company photographer, retires. [3]

In 1978, More than 100,000 sacks of cement are used by Halliburton to grout the legs of Shell Oil’s massive Cognac platform in the Gulf of Mexico. [3]

In 1979, Halliburton crews set Rocky Mountain record by cementing a 21,670-foot string. [3]

1990s

  • Following the end of Operation Desert Storm in February 1991, the Pentagon, led by then Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, paid Halliburton subsidiary Brown & Root Services over $8.5 million to study the use of private military forces with American soldiers in combat zones.[9]
  • Thomas H. Cruikshank, who served as chairman and CEO from 1989 until 1995, was replaced by Dick Cheney.
  • In the aftermath of Operation Desert Storm, Halliburton crews helped bring 320 burning oil wells under control in Kuwait.
  • In the early 1990s Halliburton was found to be in violation of federal trade barriers in Iraq and Libya, having sold these countries dual-use oil drilling equipment and, through its former subsidiary, Halliburton Logging Services, sending six pulse neutron generators to Libya. After having pleaded guilty, the company was fined $1.2 million, with another $2.61 million in penalties.[10]
  • In the Balkans conflict in the 1990s, Kellogg Brown-Root (KBR) supported U.S. peacekeeping forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Hungary with food, laundry, transportation and other lifecycle management services.Template:Citation needed
  • In 1998 Halliburton merged with Dresser Industries, which included Kellogg. Prescott Bush was a director of Dresser Industries, which is now part of Halliburton. Former United States president George H. W. Bush worked for Dresser Industries in several positions from 1948–1951, before he founded Zapata Corporation.

2000s

  • In 2001 The Wall Street Journal reported that a subsidiary of Halliburton Energy Services called Halliburton Products and Services Ltd. (HPS) opened an office in Tehran. The company, HPS, operated on the ninth floor of a new north Tehran tower block. Although HPS was incorporated in the Cayman Islands in 1975 and is "non-American", it shares both the logo and name of Halliburton Energy Services and, according to Dow Jones Newswires offers services from Halliburton units world-wide through its Tehran office. Such behavior, undertaken while Cheney was CEO of Halliburton, may have violated the Trading with the Enemy Act. A Halliburton spokesman, responding to inquiries from Dow Jones, said "This is not breaking any laws. This is a foreign subsidiary and no US person is involved in this. No US person is facilitating any transaction. We are not performing directly in that country." Later Dave Lesar would book his own flights to the Teheran office through the UK arm of KBR. No legal action has been taken against the company or its officials.[11]
  • In April 2002, KBR was awarded a $7 million contract to construct steel holding cells at Camp X-Ray.[12]
  • From 1995–2002, Halliburton Brown & Root Services Corp was awarded at least $2.5 billion but has spent considerably less to construct and run military bases, some in secret locations, as part of the Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program. This contract was a cost plus 13% contract and BRS employees were trained on how to pass GAO audits to ensure maximum profits were attained. It was also grounds for termination in the Balkans if any BRS employee spoke of Dick Cheney being CEO. BRS was awarded and re-awarded contracts termed "non-competitive" due to BRS being the only company capable to pull off the missions. DYNACORP actually won the competitively let 2nd contract but never received any work orders in the Balkans.[9]
  • In November 2002, KBR was tasked to plan oil well firefighting in Iraq, and in February 2003 was issued a contract to conduct the work. Critics contend that it was a no-bid contract, awarded due to Dick Cheney's position as Vice President. Concern was also expressed that the contract could allow KBR to pump and distribute Iraqi oil.[13] Others contend, however, that this was not strictly a no-bid contract, and was invoked under a contract that KBR won "in a competitive bid process."[14] The contract, referred to as LOGCAP, is a contingency-based contract that is invoked at the convenience of the Army. Because the contract is essentially a retainer, specific orders are not competitively bid (as the overall contract was).
  • Halliburton planned to move its headquarters to Houston in 2002.[15]
  • In October 2004, Halliburton opened a new facility on , replacing an older facility that opened in 1948, in Rock Springs, Wyoming. With over approximately 500 employees, Halliburton is one of the largest private employers in Sweetwater County.[18]
  • On January 24, 2006 Halliburton’s subsidiary KBR (formerly Kellogg, Brown and Root) announced that it had been awarded a $385 million contingency contract by the Department of Homeland Security to build "temporary detention and processing facilities" or internment camps. According to Business Wire, this contract will be executed in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District. Critics point to the Guantanamo Bay detention camp as a possible model. According to a press release posted on the Halliburton website, "The contract, which is effective immediately, provides for establishing temporary detention and processing capabilities to augment existing Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Detention and Removal Operations (DRO) Program facilities in the event of an emergency influx of immigrants into the U.S., or to support the rapid development of new programs. The contingency support contract provides for planning and, if required, initiation of specific engineering, construction and logistics support tasks to establish, operate and maintain one or more expansion facilities."[19]
  • On April 15, 2006, Halliburton filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission to sell up to 20 percent of its KBR stock on the NYSE under the ticker symbol "KBR", as part of an eventual plan for KBR to be a separate company from Halliburton.[20]
  • In February, 2008, a hard disk and two computers containing classified information were stolen from Petrobras while in Halliburton's custody. Allegedly, the content inside the stolen material, was data on the recently discovered Tupi oil field. Initial police inquiries suggest that it could be a common container theft operation. The container was a ramshackle in complete disorder indicating that thieves were after "valuables and not only laptops", said an expert consulted by the daily newspaper Folha de S. Paulo.[21]

By 2012 Halliburton plans to leave its Downtown Houston offices and consolidate operations at its Westchase and northern Houston offices; the north Houston office will become the new headquarters for Halliburton.[22]

Halliburton is the only company mentioned by Osama bin Laden in an April 2004 tape in which he claims that "this is a war [in Afghanistan] that is benefiting major companies with billions of dollars."[23]

Internet pundit John Burnett has described Halliburton's deals as recalling a Vietnam-Era controversy. He claims Vice President Cheney's ties to the company are reminiscent of President Lyndon B. Johnson's relationships with Brown & Root.[24]

Halliburton’s $2.5 billion "Restore Iraqi Oil" (RIO) contract[25] was supposed to pay for itself as well as reconstruction of the entire country. Had the contract been fulfilled correctly, Iraq would be able to export much more oil from its northern oil fields. Instead, the oil fields are barely usable and access to international markets is severely limited. Halliburton’s work on the pipeline crossing the Tigris river at Al Fatah was a critical failure. Against the advice of its own experts, Halliburton tried to dig a tunnel through a geological fault zone. The underground terrain was a jumble of boulders, voids, cobblestones and gravel impossible for the kind of drilling Halliburton planned. "No driller in his right mind would have gone ahead," said Army geologist Robert Sanders when the military finally sent people to inspect the work.[26]

Involvement in the Iraq war

In recent years July 2009 the company has become the object of several controversies involving the 2003 Iraq War and the company's ties to Former U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney. Cheney retired from the company during the 2000 U.S. presidential election campaign with a severance package worth $36 million.[27] As of 2004, he had received $398,548 in deferred compensation from Halliburton while Vice President.[28] Cheney was chairman and CEO of Halliburton Company from 1995 to 2000 and has received stock options from Halliburton.

Bunnatine Greenhouse, a civil servant with 20 years of contracting experience, had complained to Army officials on numerous occasions that Halliburton had been unlawfully receiving special treatment for work in Iraq, Kuwait and the Balkans. Criminal investigations were opened by the U.S. Justice Department, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Pentagon's inspector general.

In one of the many examples of abuse, Greenhouse said that military auditors caught Halliburton overcharging the Pentagon for fuel deliveries into Iraq. She also complained that Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's office took control of every aspect of Halliburton's $7 billion Iraqi oil/infrastructure contract. After her testimony, Greenhouse was demoted, allegedly for poor performance.October 2009 Greenhouse had received excellent performance ratings in the past. Greenhouse's attorney, Michael Kohn, stated in the New York Times that "she is being demoted because of her strict adherence to procurement requirements and the Army's preference to sidestep them when it suits their needs." Lt. Gen. Carl A. Strock asserted the contrary.[29]

Response by Halliburton

In November 2006, Halliburton began unloading its stake in KBR (company), its major subsidiary, and by February 2007 had completely sold off the subsidiary. In June 2007, several days after Stewart Bowen, the Special Inspector General, released a new report, the Army announced that KBR would share another $150 billion contract with two other contractors, Fluor and Dyncorp, over the next ten years.[30]

参考文献

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  15. "Halliburton to Move Headquarters from Dallas to Houston." Fort Worth Star-Telegram. July 17, 2002. Retrieved on July 14, 2009.
  16. |title=Halliburton firm bribed Nigeria - theage.com.au |publisher=Theage.com.au |date=2003-05-10 |accessdate=2009-09-05
  17. Dead link|date=September 2009
  18. who owns 100% of Service Employers International Inc. which KBR is a head hunter for. "Halliburton Opens New Facility in Southwest Wyoming" - 2004 Press Releases at Halliburton.com - October 28, 2004
  19. |title=Halliburton News |publisher=Halliburton.com |date= |accessdate=2009-09-05
  20. KBR_S1.pdf
  21. |title=Polícia Federal investiga furto de dados sigilosos da Petrobras - 14/02/2008 - UOL Últimas Notícias |publisher=Noticias.uol.com.br |date=2008-02-14 |accessdate=2009-09-05
  22. |title=World | Middle East | Full text: 'Bin Laden tape' |publisher=BBC News |date=2004-04-15 |accessdate=2009-09-05
  23. |title=Halliburton Deals Recall Vietnam-Era Controversy |publisher=NPR |date= |accessdate=2009-09-05
  24. Fact Sheet: Halliburton's Iraq Contracts Now Worth over $10 Billion
  25. title=Rebuilding of Iraqi pipeline as disaster waiting to happen|author=James Glanz|date=2006-04-25|accessdate=2007-12-01
  26. |title=Halliburton suspends bill for army meals | World news | The Guardian |publisher=The Guardian<! |date= |accessdate=2009-09-05
  27. Kerry Ad Falsely Accuses Cheney on Halliburton
  28. |publisher=The New York Times |title=REACH OF WAR: PROCUREMENT; Army Contract Official Critical of Halliburton Pact Is Demoted |author=Erik Eckholm |date=29 August 2005
  29. |title=KBR, Fluor, Dyncorp win US Army contract, shrs up | Reuters |publisher=Reuters<! |date=2007-06-28 |accessdate=2009-09-05
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评论(共2条)

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222.174.38.* 在 2009年12月11日 09:10 发表

有它的组织结构介绍吗

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123.120.15.* 在 2013年10月16日 19:26 发表

天津的邦腾是现在的哈利伯顿,新的公司新的面貌,我们的公司走上新的台阶,希望以后走的更远更远。员工的薪水也要上个新台阶了吧。

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