2017年诺贝尔经济学奖

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2017年诺贝尔经济学奖

2017年诺贝尔经济学奖(Nobel Prizes in Economic Sciences 2017)

目录

2017年诺贝尔经济学奖简介

  2017年北京时间10月9日诺贝尔经济学奖揭晓,理查德·塞勒(Richard Thaler)——行为金融学奠基者、芝加哥大学教授获奖,理由是行为经济学的成就。 ​

  官网原文

  The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2017 was awarded to Richard H. Thaler "for his contributions to behavioural economics".

理查德·塞勒的简介

  理查德·塞勒1945年出生于美国新泽西州。曾先后在罗彻斯特取得文学硕士(1970)和哲学博士(1974)学位。先后执教于罗彻斯特大学 (1971-1978)和康奈尔大学(1978-1995),1995年起任芝加哥大学商业研究生院行为科学与经济学教授、决策研究中心主任至今。现为美国经济学会会员、美国艺术与科学研究院院士。系行为经济学和行为金融学领域的重要代表人物。

  研究领域

  塞勒的主要研究领域是行为经济学、行为金融学与决策心理学。在行为金融学方面,塞勒研究人的有限理性行为对金融市场的影响,并作出了很多重要贡献。塞勒是赫伯特·西蒙(HerbertSimon)所领导的一个委员会的委员,其任务是向总统的科学顾问提交关于决策与问题求解的研究报告。

  官网人物介绍

  Richard H. Thaler has incorporated psychologically realistic assumptions into analyses of economic decision-making. By exploring the consequences of limited rationality, social preferences, and lack of self-control, he has shown how these human traits systematically affect individual decisions as well as market outcomes.

  Limited rationality: Thaler developed the theory of mental accounting, explaining how people simplify financial decision-making by creating separate accounts in their minds, focusing on the narrow impact of each individual decision rather than its overall effect. He also showed how aversion to losses can explain why people value the same item more highly when they own it than when they don't, a phenomenon called the endowment effect. Thaler was one of the founders of the field of behavioural finance, which studies how cognitive limitations influence financial markets.

  Social preferences: Thaler's theoretical and experimental research on fairness has been influential. He showed how consumers' fairness concerns may stop firms from raising prices in periods of high demand, but not in times of rising costs. Thaler and his colleagues devised the dictator game, an experimental tool that has been used in numerous studies to measure attitudes to fairness in different groups of people around the world.

  Lack of self-control: Thaler has also shed new light on the old observation that New Year's resolutions can be hard to keep. He showed how to analyse self-control problems using a planner-doer model, which is similar to the frameworks psychologists and neuroscientists now use to describe the internal tension between long-term planning and short-term doing. Succumbing to shortterm temptation is an important reason why our plans to save for old age, or make healthier lifestyle choices, often fail. In his applied work, Thaler demonstrated how nudging – a term he coined – may help people exercise better self-control when saving for a pension, as well in other contexts.

  In total, Richard Thaler's contributions have built a bridge between the economic and psychological analyses of individual decision-making. His empirical findings and theoretical insights have been instrumental in creating the new and rapidly expanding field of behavioural economics, which has had a profound impact on many areas of economic research and policy.

近年诺贝尔经济学奖得主一览表

近年诺贝尔经济学奖得主一览表
年份获奖者名单
2016年本特·霍姆斯特罗姆Bengt Holmstrom)、奥利弗·哈特Oliver Simon D'Arcy Hart
2015年安格斯·迪顿Angus Deaton
2014年让·梯若尔Jean Tirole
2013年尤金·法玛(Eugene Fama)、彼得·汉森(Peter Hansen)、罗伯特·希勒(Robert Shiller)
2012年埃尔文·罗斯Alvin E. Roth)及罗伊德·沙普利Lloyd S. Shapley
2011年托玛斯·萨金特(Thomas J. Sargent)和克里斯托弗·西姆斯(Christopher A.Sims)
2010年彼得·戴蒙德(Peter A. Diamond)、戴尔·莫滕森(Dale T. Mortensen)、克里斯托弗·皮萨里德斯(Christopher A. Pissarides)
2009年埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆(Elinor Ostrom)和奥利弗·威廉姆森(Oliver E. Williamson)
2008年保罗·克鲁格曼(Paul R.Krugman)
2007年莱昂尼德·赫维奇(Leonid Hurwicz)、罗杰·迈尔森(Roger B. Myerson)和埃里克·马斯金(Eric S. Maskin)
2006年埃德蒙德·菲尔普斯(Edmund Phelps)
2005年罗伯特·奥曼(Robert John Aumann)和托马斯·谢林(Thomas Crombie Schelling)
2004年芬恩·基德兰德(Finn E. Kydland)和爱德华·普雷斯科特(Edward C. Prescott)
2003年罗伯特·恩格尔(Robert F. Engle III)和克莱夫·格兰杰 (Clive W.J. Granger)
2002年丹尼尔·卡纳曼(Daniel Kahneman)和弗农·史密斯(Vernon L. Smith)
2001年乔治·阿克尔洛夫(George A. Akerlof )、迈克尔·斯宾塞(A. Michael Spence )、约瑟夫·斯蒂格利茨(Joseph E. Stiglitz)

诺贝尔经济学奖简介

  诺贝尔经济学奖(The Nobel Economics Prize),全称是纪念阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔瑞典银行经济学奖(The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel),通常称为诺贝尔经济学奖,也称瑞典银行经济学奖

  诺贝尔经济学奖不属于诺贝尔遗嘱中所提到的五大奖励领域之一,而是由瑞典银行在1968年为纪念诺贝尔而增设的,其评选标准与其它奖项是相同的,获奖者由瑞典皇家科学院评选,1969年(该银行的300周年庆典)第一次颁奖,由挪威人弗里希和荷兰人丁伯根共同获得。

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